The Rise of Big Business in America

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Transcript The Rise of Big Business in America

The Rise of Big Business in
America
Objective: Students will analyze how big business
shaped industrial progress in America to determine
its affects on society
Warm Up: Answer the following questions using your
textbook (these question will help you in our class
discussion)
1. Read “Belief in Free Markets” on 467, What is
laissez-faire capitalism? And how is laissez-faire
capitalism supported by Social Darwinism?
2. Look at the map on page 462, what region had the
most railroads. Why do you think this was so?
Transcontinental Railroad
• In 1862 a transcontinental railroad project
went underway and was completed by
1869
• Progress VS. Problem
• Effects of the Rail expansion
– Sped up settlement in the West
– Adoption of “standard time” – efficiency
(states had many ‘local times’)
– HUB Cities – CHICAGO (Look at page 465)
Laissez-Faire = FREE TRADE
• American economic system is CAPITALIST (private
industry runs business)
• By the late 1800s most businessmen believed in
Laissez-faire (“to let do”)  Conduct business without
intervention by the government
– No government regulation/laws to conduct business
– The idea is that businesses will make laws that suit the
people (because they want people to buy their products)
• Many businessmen believed in “Social Darwinism” =
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
– Weak businesses wont last and the strong businesses (hard
workers) will come out on top
Business Structure Change = Shoe
Maker to Shoe Factory
• BEFORE: Single/Partner businesses (owned
and operated by one person with their money)
• 1860s: Corporation: A business with the legal
status of an individual. It is owned by
stockholders (people who buy a piece of the
company). Major business decisions are made
by a board
– RIGHTS OF COMPANIES STARTED TO HAVE
MORE/EQUAL RIGHTS TO PEOPLE (Fair/unfair?)
• WHAT IS THE AUTHOR SAYING ABOUT
CORPORATIONS AND THE
GOVERNMENT?
Integration of companies/industries
• Vertical Integration: Purchase of companies
producing the supplies and the services upon
which the main business depends
• Horizontal Integration: Purchase of competing
companies in the same industry
• BOTH KINDS LEAD TO LOTS OF MONEY
BEING MADE BY BUSINESS OWNERS
The Rise of Big Business in
America
Objective: Students will analyze how big business
shaped industrial progress in America to determine
its affects on society
Warm Up: Copy the questions on the board for the
movie
Agenda: 1. Industrialization Movie
2. Class Notes on Big Business
3. Independent Work (make-up homework)
Movie Questions: Industrialization
• What is Industrialization?
• Describe how railroads affected Industrialization?
• Describe the Centennial Celebration in 1876, what
things were exhibited in “Machinery Hall”?
• What did Alexander Graham Bell invent?
• Why were cities important for industrialization?
• How did humans threaten/hurt the natural resources of
the United States with Industrialization? Which
resources were depleted?
• What does the narrator mean by “The United States
had emerged by an economic colossus”?
The Rise of Big Business
• Objective: Students will investigate
business concepts to analyze its impact on
the American economy of the 1870s and
today.
• Warm UP: Monopoly Cartoon Worksheet
• Classwork: Business Worksheet (in
partners or alone but fill out your own
worksheet)
• NOTEBOOK CHECK
Big Business: Progress or
Problem for America?
• Objective: Students will investigate the rise
of big business in American history to
evaluate its affect on society (economically
and socially)
• Agenda:
– WARM UP: Finish Chapter 14 Worksheet and
REVIEW (10 minutes)
– Chapter 14 QUIZ: Open Note/HW
– Scientific Innovation assignment – Make a
small (8x11 poster of your invention for our
timeline)
Monopolies and Trusts
• Trust: When companies agreed to merge and
turn over their separate stocks/rights to a board
of trusties.
– The trusties than ran the group as if it were a single
corporation.
• Monopoly: When a trust gained complete
control over an industry.
• Sherman Anti-Trust Act:
– Made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free
trade
– Bill Gates and Microsoft (kind of a monopoly)
Working Conditions during the
Second Industrial Revolution
• Misdistribution of wealth in US (10% of
population controlled 75 of the $$)
• Movement from skilled labor to unskilled
labor (poorly paid, child labor, immigrant
exploitation)
• Sweatshops – cramped workshops set up
in shabby apartments
Workers seek change through
STRIKES and UNIONS
• By the late 1800s, working conditions were so dismal
that workers began organizing into Unions
• Worked for equal pay, end of child labor, and an 8
hour workday
• Xenophobia: Fear of Foreigners
– Eastern Europeans were used to striking
• Blacklist: list of people whom were refused a job
– If you were a known unionist/striker you’d be
blacklisted from all the employers
Ch 14 Quiz Questions: (Complete Sentences)
• 1. Name one PUSH factor and one PULL factor for why people
moved WEST in the 1800s?
• 2. What is an entrepreneur? Name one entrepreneur from the
1800s and explain why he/she was an entrepreneur.
• 3. DEFINE: Trusts and Monopolies. Explain how trusts or
monopolies hurt consumers in the 1800s?
• 4. Describe working conditions for unskilled laborers in the
1800s?
• 5. You own a fast-food restaurant. Explain how you would
– VERTICALLY INTEGRATE your business to make profit.
– HORIZONTALLY INTEGRATE your business to make profit.
The Age of Invention:1870-1920
• After completing your homework on the
information for a specific Scientific
Invention, complete a 8x11 poster
displaying the history and significance of
your invention for our INVENTION
TIMELINE
• List the inventor, year it was invented, why
it was invented/what did people do before
the invention, and the significance of the
invention to modern day. Add a drawing or
visual of the invention.
Importance of the Age of Invention
• As city populations grew,
people needed faster
transportation and
communication
• Streetcars, Subways,
Automobiles, Airplanes
(1900s)
• Telegraph (beep beeps),
Telephone, Typewriter
• Inventions added
convenience and
LEISURE TIME TO
MODERN LIVING
Immigrants pour into America and
Migrants move through America
• Objective: Students will study the different
waves of immigrants to evaluate how they
economically, socially and politically
affected American culture
• Warm Up: Write a sentence or two
describing each of the following pictures.
All pictures are of immigrants in the late
1800s.
– FOR EACH PICTURE, PREDICT WHERE
THE PEOPLE CAME FROM
Stringing Beans in Baltimore
Shucking Oysters in Florida
Immigrants in a tenement
Americanization of Immigrants
Immigration to America
• Immigration is always a choice and not
everyone could immigrate
– Why people moved? Desire for a better life
• PUSH and PULL Factors (see following slide)
– Not everyone could afford to go (many spent
their lifesavings to get a ticket)
– Journey to America was painful
(emotionally/physically) and long
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UhtLKpim-Uw
– Not everyone was allowed in
• Immigration laws didn’t exist in 1800s UNLESS you
were seriously diseased or disabled (unable to work)
PUSH and PULL Factors for
Immigration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Russian Jews fled religious persecution
Religious freedom in America
Desperate poverty in Eastern Europe
No economic opportunity in Europe (no land/no jobs)
America was known as “the land of opportunity”
1840’s  Potato famine in Ireland resulting in severe
starvation/poverty/disease
• Cheap land in Western part of United States
• Growing cities in United States
Ellis Island and Angel Island
• Elis Island:
– US Government
immigration station
opened in 1882.
• IMMIGRANTS HAD TO
PASS INSPECTION
• Angel Island
– 1910: West Coast
Immigration station in San
Francisco
• Chinese racism  people
detained for weeks in
prison-like conditions
– If you were found unfit,
HAD to go back to country • Chinese Exclusion Act
– Families got split up
of 1882 (no immigration)
permanently
– Anger Chinese were
• Sent back if
taking US jobs
diseased/disabled
– FIRST US immigration
(hazard to US citizens or
law
burden to US citizens)
Nativism: Anger/Fear towards
those not from own country
• Efforts of Nativists to
stop immigration in early
1900s:
– Chinese Exclusion Act
– Push for literacy tests
(never passed in
Govt.)
– Americanization
efforts (make
foreigners more
American) Y.M.C.A.
How the Irish became “American” –
TIME/POPULATION ##
How does Immigration affect our
lives?
• First Lady Michele
Obama taking
questions in DC
about immigration.
• Do you think that
illegal immigration is
an issue? (positive or
negative for the
country?)
•
http://www.hulu.com/watch/150772/t
he-obama-administration-girlquestions-first-lady-on-immigration