Living in South Asia: Culture & Economy

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Transcript Living in South Asia: Culture & Economy

This Week
• Test Tutorials
– Today @ 2:50
– Tomorrow @ 6:50
• Test tomorrow! Study!
• Binder Checks:
– Staggered beginning Wednesday,
ending Friday morning
– If you’re in an afternoon class: it’ll be
either Wednesday or Thursday!
Mahatma Gandhi
• Born in India (1869), married at age 13 in an
arranged marriage
• Became a lawyer and practiced in South Africa
– South Africa was also a part of the British
Empire
• While in South Africa, he was on a train in firstclass when he was ordered to sit in third-class.
He refused and was kicked off the train
–  non-violent protests for human rights
• Returned to British-ruled India, gained popularity
• Begins boycott of British goods
• Meanwhile, British pass laws that restrict Indian
rights
• Salt March:1930
– British pass Salt Act, Indians can only buy
heavily-taxed salt sold by British
– Marched 240 miles to the sea (Dandi). Began
with 78 people, ended with several thousand
– British soldiers attacked protestors, but
Indians did not fight back
• India gains independence: August 15,
1947
• Gandhi then calls for unity in a
divided India (Hindu vs. Muslim)
• Assassination
– January 30, 1948
– Shot & killed by Hindu extremist who
was upset that Gandhi was tolerant of
Muslims
• MLK Jr. was highly influenced by
Gandhi’s NONVIOLENT protests and
used those tactics in the USA
Living in South Asia
Ch. 25.1
Agriculture
• 60% are in agriculture (India/
Bangladesh)
–Mostly subsistence farming
–Large use of animal power
• Plowing, waterwheels, work of tractor
–Dependent on rainfall
Agriculture
• Terracing in the highlands
• Fruit orchards in Pakistan
• Rice in Bangladesh/India (4th/2nd)
–Small farms in India
• Huge tea/rubber/coconut plantations
in Sri Lanka (thanks to Europe)
–S.L. now has to import many foods
Green Revolution
• Since 1960s: want to increase
and diversify crops
• Diversify crops, monitor irrigation,
introduction of new fertilizers.
–India can now store and export
grains
–Monsoons, though, interrupt cycles
& modernization costs $$$
Industries
• India’s economy- after independence
in 1947  socialist (more govn’t
control)
• Expanded home industry to be selfsufficient (slow growth for decades)
• But in 1990s, economic crisis led to
market economy consumerism
skyrocketed (2nd to U.S.)
Industries
• Textiles is huge (38 million workers)
• Grew out of history of cottage
industries (employ workers in
home)
–Gandhi used spinning wheel as
symbol of strength & independence
for India
Industries
• Mining and fishing are still prevalent
–Petroleum in Pak., graphite in S.L.
–Bang. = commercial fishers vs. local
• Iron & steel are major heavy
industries
–Ship Breaking dismantle and melt
down old ships
Chittagong,
Bangladesh
Industries
• High-Technology Sector- computer,
communications, aerospace,
software
–Bangalore & Hyderabad= “India’s
Silicon Valley”
–India is 2nd largest exporter of
software
Outsourcing/Offshoring
• Transfer of management or
production to another country
–Lower labor & energy costs
–Efficient land use
–Foundations for global expansion
• India is known for call centers, but
that is w/ higher education.
Tourism
• Come to hike, hunt in Himalayas
• See India’s temples & festivals (millions of
ppl per year)
• But religious and political violence is
causing a drop in tourism (S.L., Kashmir)
• Some restrict tourists to preserve environ.
– Bhutan ( <5,000 tourist visas ea. year)
What’s the Problem?
Labor Force of
India
• Agriculture: 60%
• Industry: 12%
• Services: 28%
Gross Domestic
Product
• Agriculture: 20%
• Industry: 19%
• Services: 61%