Motivation and Emotion - San Marcos Unified School District
Transcript Motivation and Emotion - San Marcos Unified School District
Theories of Emotions
Emotion are a mix of:
• Physiological activation - Physical
• Expressive behaviors - Behavior
• Conscious experience – Thinking and
James-Lange Theory of
• William James and
Carl Lange completely
opposed to commonsense view.
• Proposes that
• The body changes
ultimately cause to
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
• How can that theory be true if
similar physiological changes
correspond with drastically
different emotional states.
• The physiological change
(body’s arousal) and cognitive
awareness (emotions) must
occur separately (but
• Routed to the cortex and the
Sympathetic NS at the same
time by the Thalamus.
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
• Stanley Schachter and Jerome
Singer explains emotions more
completely that the other two
• They happen at the same time but…
• To experience the emotion the
person must be physically aroused
AND cognitively label the arousal.
• Biology and Cognition interact with
each other to increase the
Two Routes to Emotion
• Called a polygraph.
• Measures several of the
• Heart rate
• Blood pressure
• Breathing changes
Judged innocent by polygraph
Judged guilty by polygraph
--1/3 of innocent
--1/4 of guilty
& Szucko, 1984)
Is 70% accuracy good?
*Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually
--test all employees
--285 will be wrongly accused
What about 95% accuracy?
*Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty.
--test all employees (including 999 innocents)
--50 wrongly declared guilty
--1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)
Neuroscience of Emotions
Know how emotions affect the ANS
Arousal and Performance
• Performance peaks at
lower levels of
arousal for difficult
tasks, and at higher
levels for easy or
• For MOST tasks
though, you want
moderate levels of
Role of Neurotransmitters & Hormones
• Important Roles in Emotion:
• Low serotonin Depression.
• High levels of Epinephrine and
Norepinephrine Anger and Fear.
The Limbic System and Emotions
• The Amygdala is a neural
key to fear learning.
• Also involved in rage and
• Integrates the hormonal
and neural emotional
Role of the Cortex and Emotions
• In general…
• the right hemisphere
specializes in negative
• the left hemisphere
specializes in positive
People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one.
Gender and expressiveness
• Non-verbal communication gestures, body language, facial
• Introverts – better at reading
• Extroverts – easier to read.
Culture and Emotional Expression
• Gestures and their meaning vary from culture to culture.
• Individualist cultures show more intense and prolonged
Detecting and Computing Emotion
Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving
emotions. Even trained professionals like police
officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists
detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.
Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
Culture and Emotional Expression
When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial
expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them.
Infants’ naturally occurring emotions
Two Dimensions of Emotion
Blue = Psychological
Pink = Physiological
Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19 B.C.),
but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-149 B.C.).
• People generally become angry
with friends and loved ones who
commit wrongdoings, especially if
they are willful, unjustified, and
• People are also angered by foul
odors, high temperatures, traffic
jams, and aches and pains.
• If you’re angry at someone about
something… tell them directly.
Anger - Cultural & Gender Differences
• Boys tend to respond to anger by
moving away from that situation
or exercising, while girls talk to
their friends or listen to music.
• Anger also breeds prejudice (Like
the 9/11 attacks did).
• Individualized cultures encourage
venting; not collectivist cultures.
• Fear can be learned
• as well as through
Don’t forget the Amygdala!
• The neural key to
• Like a guard dog, it
is continuously alert
People who are happy…
• perceive the world as
• make decisions easily.
• are more cooperative.
• live healthier,
energized, and more
Predictors of Happiness
Researchers Have Found That
Happy People Tend to…
However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Related to Other Factors, Such as
Have high self-esteem
Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable
Gender (women are more often
depressed, but also more often joyful)
Have close friendships or a satisfying
Have work and leisure that engage
Parenthood (having children or not)
Have a meaningful religious faith
Sleep well and exercise
energy (through action
or fantasy) relieves
• Feel-good, do-good
• People’s tendency to
be helpful when
already in a good
• Subjective Well-Being:
• Self-perceived happiness
or satisfaction with life.
Moods across the day
Does money buy happiness?
in 1995 dollars
80% themselves as
70% very happy
Percentage very happy
1930 1940 1950 1960 1970
1980 1990 2000
Values & Life Satisfaction
Students who value love more than money
report higher life satisfaction.
• Tendency to form judgments
relative to a “neutral” level.
• If you get a raise in salary, you feel
good. But once you adjust to that
new salary level, you need another
raise to get that same feeling again.
• Success and failure are always
relative to our recent experiences.
• Relative Deprivation:
• Perception that one is
worse off relative to
those with whom one