Cardiovascular System - Byron Senior High School

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Transcript Cardiovascular System - Byron Senior High School

Cardiovascular System
I. Introduction
• The cardiovascular system consists of the
heart, and vessels, arteries, capillaries,
and veins.
• A functional cardiovascular system is vital
for _________________________and
___________from them.
II. Structure of the Heart
• The ______is a hollow, cone-shaped,
muscular pump within the __________.
• Size and Location of the Heart
– The average adult heart is
– The heart lies in the _______ under the
sternum & ______________.
Average Size of Heart
• 14 cm long
• 9 cm wide
• Coverings of the Heart
– The __________encloses the heart
– It is made of ___________; the outer, tough
connective tissue fibrous __________
surrounding a more delicate visceral
pericardium (____________that surrounds
the heart.
– Between the 2 pericardia is a space
(______________) filled with fluid
• Wall of the Heart
– The wall of the heart is composed of
– The outermost layer, the ____________, is made up
of connective tissue and houses ___________ and
– The middle layer called ____________consists of
____________and is the thickest layer of the heart
– The inner layer is the ______________.
• Heart Chambers and Valves
– The heart has four internal chambers:
____________on the top and ____________
on the bottom.
• _______________returning to the heart from other
parts of the body and have thin walls and ear-like
auricles projecting from their exterior.
• The thick-muscled _________________________
Coronal Sections of Heart
– A __________ divides the atrium and
ventricle on each side. Each also has an
_____________________to ensure one way
flow of blood.
• ________________________
• ________________________
– Both have cusps to which
__________________(heart strings) attach.
• ______________are, in turn, attached to
_______________in the inner heart wall that
contract (pull) during ventricular contraction to
______________________through the A-V
– The _______________________bring deoxygenated blood from the body to the right
– The __________________than does the left
ventricle because it pumps blood only as far
as the lungs, compared to the
– At the base of the ______________leading to
the lungs, is the ______________, which
– The __________________receives blood
from five pulmonary veins.
– The _____________pumps blood into the
entire body through the _______, guarded by
the aortic valve that prevents backflow of
blood into the ventricle.
• Path of blood through the Heart.
• Blood supply to the Heart Muscle
– __________________
• Feed the heart muscle with oxygenated blood.
– __________________
• Drain the blood from the heart muscle and carry it
to the right atrium
III. Heart Actions
• Blood pressure is the force of blood against the
inner walls of the arteries.
• The cardiac cycle consists of:
– Atria beating in unison (___________)
– Contraction of both ventricles
– Then the entire heart relaxes for a breif moment
• ________ = ventricle contraction felt in the
• Heart sounds
– ___________are due to the vibrations in heart
tissue as blood rapidly changes velocity within
the heart.
– Heart sounds can be described as a “lubbdupp” sound, also called “___________”
– The “_____” occurs as ventricles contract
– The “_____” occurs as ventricles relax
IV. Blood Vessels
• The blood vessels form a closed tube that
carries blood away from the heart, to the cells,
and back again to the heart.
• _______ are thick vessels adapted for carrying
high presure blood _____ from the heart
• ________are the smallest vessels, through
which substances are exchanged with cells
• _______ are thinner than arteries; they _____
blood to the heart.
Venous Valves
Venous Blood Flow
• not a direct result of heart
• depends on skeletal muscle
• depends on breathing
Life-Span Changes
• deposition of cholesterol in blood vessels
• heart enlarges
• cardiac muscle cells die
• fibrous connective tissue of heart increases
• adipose tissue of heart increases
• blood pressure increases
• resting heart rate decreases
Clinical Application
Ventricular fibrillation
• rapid, uncoordinated
depolarization of ventricles
• rapid heartbeat
Atrial flutter
• rapid rate of atrial