Fluency - My.msmc.edu
Fluency - My.msmc.edu
The Basics of Networking
What is the Internet?
totality of all wires, fibers, switches,
routers, satellite links, and other hardware
for transporting information between
How have computers changed our
effect has it had on the influence of
the English language?
So what category
does the Internet fit into?
computer connected to the Internet is
given a unique IP (Internet Protocol)
► IP address – currently series of 4 numbers
separated by dots: e.g. 220.127.116.11
► Each # can be in range of 0-255
► Internet protocol moving to Version 6 (IPv6)
with a 16-byte address system.
more human-friendly way of addressing
computers based on a hierarchy of domains.
► Domain – related group of networked computers
Name System (DNS) translates the
domain name into its 4-number IP address
► DNS server – a computer that keeps a list of the
symbolic names and the corresponding IP
Top Level Domains
In addition there’s a 2-letter country code:
.uk, .au, .fr etc. that identifies countries
– breaks a transmission up into small
► Each packet contains the following:
Data being sent
Destination IP address
- re-orders the packets at the destination
to assemble the information
Characteristics of TCP/IP
► Packets are transmitted over the Internet
using whatever route is available
► Transmissions often rely on multiple
technologies to move the packets through
– wide-area networks: networks
designed to send information between two
locations not directly connected.
Packets take several “hops” before delivery
– local-area network. Computers are
directly cabled or “channeled” together.
Most LANs use Ethernet technology.
Connecting to the Internet
► ISP – Internet Service Provider
DSL (digital subscriber line)
LANs connect to the Internet via a gateway.
Information from a remote Web computer is sent across
the Internet, through the gateway to the organization’s
intranet, and across the LAN to the user’s computer.
The World Wide Web
Web servers – computers programmed to
send files to browsers running on other
computers connected to the Internet.
► Subset of the Internet
► Each web page has a unique address called
a Universal Resource Locator or URL
► Built on a client-server relationship
The URL consists of three parts:
► Protocol: http:// - stands for Hypertext Transfer
► Server computer’s name
► Pathname of the particular page
Structure of emails and URLs
The receiver can have dots, dashes, and
The domain address has one or more dots, no
@, no slashes.
Spaces are not allowed in email or URLs.
Describing a Web Page
• Web pages stored as a description of how
they should appear
• Description file is called the source file
• Written in HTML (hypertext markup
• Markup languages describe document
• Hypertext – breaks linear sequence of text
through links: non-linear and dynamic
Th . . .th . . . that’s all, folks!