IT 253: Computer Organization

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Transcript IT 253: Computer Organization

Tonga Institute of Higher Education
IT253: Computer Organization
Lecture 1:
General Information
IT 253: 4 Hours of lecture a week
Course Web Page
All information will be given out in class and eventually
posted on the course web page, including lecture notes,
assignments, homework and grades. You should visit the
webpage frequently and check for updates, especially if
you have missed classes.
• Grading Policy
– Midterm 20%
– Final 50%
– Homework Assignments 25%
– Class Participation/Attendance 5%
Late assignment policy
- each day late you will lose 5 percent
- when answers are on the website you can no longer hand in your
Cheating Policy
• Cheating and academic dishonesty is not accepted or tolerated
– Any student found cheating on a testing material will
automatically receive a zero for that assignment
– Students are encouraged to study together, but to submit
separate work for homework
– There is no collaboration for tests
– Students are expected to work together when assigned to work
together and all group members should contribute equally to an
How to do well in this course
• Come to class and stay awake!
• Course material is not simple, but can
be mastered
• Take notes for important things
• Visit course webpage often. Review
lecture notes for class and from other
universities on the web
• Ask questions
Course Overview
• Topics to be covered
Introduction to Computer Architecture
Data representation
Memory and Bit Operations/Logic
Instruction Set Architecture
Assembly Language (MIPS)
Computer Arithmetic
Memory (physical and virtual)
Buses and interrupts
I/O devices
Special Topics (if there is time): Pipelining, multiprocessor
Why learn Computer Organization?
• As students of information and computer
technology, it is vital to know the “inner”
workings of the computer hardware and
software in order to better understand
effective programming principles,
computer troubleshooting, debugging,
operating systems, etc.
Why learn Computer Organization?
• You want to be a computer programmer/information
• You have to learn programming as a start
• You also have to understand the machine
– Hardware: Processor, memory, disk, etc.
– Software: Operating system, Programming
• All types of computer workers should understand
what is happening “beneath the hood” of the
• You want to make purchasing decisions as an
• Learn the language behind computers
What we will learn
The basic operation of a computer
• Primitive operations (instructions)
• Arithmetic
• Instruction Sequencing and Processing
• Memory
• Input/Output
Understand the relationship between HW/SW
• Interface design
• High level programming to control signals
Software performance relies on understanding
underlying hardware
Brief history of computers
• 1822 Charles Babbage – “inventor” of computer
– Made the difference engine and analytical engine
• Would do mathematical equations based on a “stored
• 1936: Alan Turing –
– The Turing machine, computability, universal machine
• 1946 – Eckert and Mauchly
– ENIAC – first electronic computer (with vacuum tubes)
• 1947 John von Neumann
– First to describe modern day computer, with central
processor, memory, output, input
The Big Picture
Example Computer Setup
System Organization
What is Computer Organization
Forces affecting Computer Org.
Trends in Computers
Microprocessor Technology
Levels of Computer
Instruction set interface
• Administrative matters
• Why Computer Organization is important
• Big picture of computers
– Every computer has 5 key components
• (control, datapath, input, output, memory)
• Computer hardware trends
• Computer representation
• NEXT TIME: Data representation