Transcript Document

MnPASS I-394 High Occupancy Toll
(HOT) Lanes
Case Study 7 group:
Brendon Slotterback
Chris Romansky
Feng Xie
Gabe Gubash
• Authorized by 2003 Minnesota Legislature
• Conversion of existing HOV lanes to HOT
• First of its kind in Minnesota
• Could open in Spring 2005
• Public/private partnership between State
and Wilbur & Associates
• Maximize corridor
• Reduce construction
of new infrastructure
• Improve carpool and
bus service
What is this thing?
• Based on the premise of congestion or “value”
– Price is dynamic, based on congestion levels and
distance from CBD
– “…a way of harnessing the power of the market and
reducing the waste associated with congestion.”
• Lanes for carpoolers will now be priced for
SOV trips
• Buses have free access
Demand / Price / Operations
Traffic In Managed
Speed In General Purpose
Why I-394?
• Location selected based on 4 criteria:
– Does the proposed project solve a problem?
– Revenue Potential
– What will it take to build?
– What are the system configurations?
Congestion I-394
Other considerations
HOT lanes schematic
Hours of Operation – Current
East of Highway 100 (Reversible Section)
Eastbound: 6 AM – 1 PM
Westbound: 2 PM – Midnight
Weekends – As Needed
West of Highway 100
Eastbound: 6 - 9 AM
Westbound: 3 - 6 PM
Existing High Occupancy/Toll (HOT) Lanes
Source of all photos: SR91 official website, CA
Existing HOT Lanes
• Only 4 HOT lane facilities are
currently operating in the US:
– State Route 91 (SR 91) Express Lanes
at Orange County, CA;
– I-15 FasTrak, at San Diego, CA
– Katy Freeway QuickRide, and
– Northwest Freeway (US 290)
QuickRide, both at Harris County, TX
State Route 91 (SR 91) Express Lanes
State Route 91 (SR 91) Express Lanes
• The first privately funded and operated
electronic variable toll facility in the US
• A 10-mile, four lane, HOT facility
• Toll rates vary from $0.75 to $4.75 by
time of day and day of the week
• Tolls for HOV2+ vehicles are reduced by
50 percent.
I-15 FasTrak
I-15 FasTrak
• Sponsored by the San Diego Association
of Governments (SANDAG) and the local
metropolitan planning organization
• Peak-period reversible HOT lanes
converted from an underutilized
preexisting eight-mile 2-lane HOV lane
• SOVs pay a toll ranging from $0.50 to
$4.00 to use the HOT lanes while HOV2+
vehicles may use the facility at no cost
Katy Freeway QuickRide I-10
Northwest Freeway QuickRide US 290
Katy Freeway QuickRide
• Sponsored by Texas Department of
Transportation (TxDOT) and the
Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris
County, TX (METRO)
• An existing highway with a 13-mile, 6-lane
freeway with 1 reversible HOV lane initially
operated at HOV 2 and then at HOV 3
• The QuickRide program allows HOV 2
vehicles to pay $2.00 per trip to use the facility
during peak periods, while HOV 3+ vehicles
continued to use the facility at no cost
Northwest Freeway (US 290) QuickRide
• A HOT converted from a 1-lane, barrierseparated, 15.5 mile, reversible HOV facility
• From 6:45AM to 8:00AM, when the facility
serves inbound traffic, HOV3+ vehicle may
use the lane for free
• Vehicles with 2+ occupants must pay $2.00,
while SOVs are never allowed to use the lane
Existing HOT Lanes in Summary
• Physical similarities:
– HOT lanes rely on electronic payment systems or paid
monthly passes during test pilot periods
– All systems have fixed and variable signs to provide
information about access, hours, prices, etc
– HOT lanes are physically separated from the parallel
general-purpose lanes by continuous concrete barriers or a
fence of collapsible pylons
• Creation:
– HOT lanes may be created through new capacity
construction or conversion of existing lanes
– Conversion of existing HOV lanes to HOT operation is most
Existing HOT Lanes in Summary
• Occupancy Requirements:
– Qualifying HOVs are allowed to use HOT
lane facilities at no cost or at a reduced toll.
HOVs are usually defined as vehicles
carrying 2+ or 3+ persons
• Pricing Systems:
– Toll levels are set to limit the number of
users by willingness to pay
– The fee structure may be fixed, varying by
time of day, or dynamic, varying in response
to real-time traffic conditions.
HOT Lane Benefits
• Retains benefits for HOVs: Fees are
reduced or eliminated for HOVs
• Congestion pricing control: Toll
levels can be set to limit throughput
to ensure free flowing conditions on
HOT lanes
Benefits of HOT Lanes…
• Increased utilization of existing infrastructure
– Recent decline in HOV lane use
– HOV lanes may not best serve the public
• SOV freedom vs coordinating carpool
• HOV users may already carpool without the benefit of
exclusive facilities (i.e. family, workers, etc)
Benefits of HOT Lanes…
• Availability of Technology:
– MnPASS avoids toll booths through remote
fee collection
• Saves time for users
• Avoids paying toll collector employees
• Maintains current infrastructure:
– Mn/DOT maintenance objective
• Improve existing facilities before building new
• Save expense and complications of acquiring new
right of way
Negatives Regarding HOT Lanes
Merging Problems
•Traffic flow impeded by merging
traffic will decrease free-flow
•Merging will cause an increase of
interactions among cars and
therefore increase the probability
of accidents
•The HOT lanes will be the interior
lanes of the freeway; this will result
in people crossing multiple lanes to
enter the HOT lanes from entrance
ramps and exit from the HOT
lanes. This could contribute to
more accidents.
•Initial costs: $11 million
•Annual operating costs: $1.5 million
•Minneapolis would need congestion
levels similar to Chicago in order for
lanes to fund themselves with tolls
•Some private or government money
would need to be raised in order for
lanes to remain functional.
•The cost may deter high occupancy
vehicles from using the lane that
would otherwise use the lane
Loss of HOV lanes
•Bus lanes and HOV lanes would be
replaced with the toll lanes
•Any busses and HOVs would have to deal
with higher levels of congestion in the lanes
•New busses would have to be
commissioned to compensate for traffic
level increases caused by people choosing
to drive SOVs as apposed to HOVs.
Should MnPASS be implemented even if it cannot pay for itself?
Should the lanes be priced even when demand is very low?
Do benefits outweigh the costs?
Might this have implications for land use? If so, what are they?
Shouldn’t we be able to drive wherever and whenever we want?
Should private investors contribute to the project?
– Who will be responsible for system losses not recovered by the tolls?
• Equity issues with using HOT lanes
– Accessible to all income brackets?
– Will it discourage current HOV users?
– Will it optimize throughput on the freeway or will it be underutilized?
• Are other transportation services more worthy of funds?
– Bus
– Rail
– Freeway