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Warm-Up – 13.Oct.2014
Write the question and answer. Use Friday’s notes. You have 5mins.
(1) What is the pattern of trade connecting
(1) Triangular trade
Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
(2) Capitalism
(2) What is the economic system in which
(3) Mercantislism
most economic activity is carried out by
private firms to seek a profit?
(3) What is the economic theory that the
strength of a nation depends on having
a large supply of gold and silver?
• After the fall of the Han Dynasty, military leaders split
China into rival kingdoms, which led to a period of
warfare called the Period of Disunion
– Lasted for more than 350 years and ended when a
northern ruler named Wendi reunified China and
founded the Sui dynasty
Sui Dynasty 581 to 618
• Built the Grand Canal that linked northern and southern
– It was a 1,000 mile waterway that made it easier to
trade and ship rice
– Millions of peasants were forced to work on the Grand
Canal and hundreds of thousands died
• High taxes and military failures led to Yangdi’s
assassination and the end of the dynasty
Tang Dynasty 618 to 907
• A Sui general seized power and founded the Tang
dynasty, which was a period of prosperity and cultural
– Trade revived and the Silk Road once again prospered
– Wu Zhao – first and only female emperor
• Inventions
– Invented gunpowder – used mostly for fireworks
• Fire-lance: weapon that shot out flame and
projectiles up to 40 yards
– Perfected the magnetic compass
• Sailors could more accurately determine direction
and navigate
– Developed woodblock printing
• Books could be mass produced
• Gov’t corruption, high taxes, nomadic invasions, and
peasant rebellions all led to the decline of the Tang
– A powerful general killed the emperor, ending the
Song Dynasty 960 to 1279
• After the Tang, China once again split apart until it was
reunified under the Song Dynasty
– Under the Song, Chinese civilization became the
most advanced in the world
• Enlarged the gov’t bureaucracy and reformed the civil
service exam
– Exams tested students’ knowledge of Confucianism
– Those who passed the exam became scholar-officials,
the elite educated members of the gov’t
• The exams were a pathway to gain wealth and
• Invasions by northern tribes forced the Song to move
the imperial court farther south, but eventually they
were conquered by the Mongols, leading to foreign rule
in China
The Mongols
• The Mongols were nomadic people who were fierce
warriors and skilled horsemen
– Were divided into separate clans, each ruled by a khan,
or chief
– One khan, Temujin, conquered his rivals and united the
Mongol clans
• He took the title Genghis Khan, which means
“universal ruler”
• Genghis Khan organized the Mongols into a powerful
military machine and his armies were highly mobile and
could strike quickly
– Used brutality and psychological warfare, many people
surrendered without a fight
• With his armies, Genghis Khan created the largest land
empire in history, controlling much of the Eurasian
– On his death, his empire was divided into four parts
and given to his heirs
– His grandson, Kublai Khan, completed the conquest
of China
Yuan Dynasty 1279 to 1368
• Kublai Khan defeated the last Song ruler and had
himself declared emperor
– This was the first time foreigners ruled China
– He established his capital at future Beijing
• Explorer Marco Polo was greatly impressed by this
• Kublai Khan kept the Chinese gov’t system in place, but
its highest positions were staffed by Mongols
– He distrusted the Chinese and limited their power
– Mongols were made to live apart from the Chinese
• Kublai Khan tried to expand his empire, but failed
– Sent several invading forces into Southeast Asia,
which all failed
– He also tried to invade Japan twice, but failed again
• These military losses, along with Chinese resentment of
foreign rule, led to rebellion that ended the Yuan
Ming Dynasty 1368 to 1644
• A peasant and his rebel army overthrew Mongol ruled
and established a new dynasty, taking the title Emperor
• The Ming capital was established at Beijing
– In the center the vast Imperial City was built, also
known as the Forbidden City
• Made contact with the first Europeans since Marco
Polo, the Portuguese
– Restricted foreign trade to a few ports
– Ming disliked the influence of Europeans, especially
the missionaries – wanted to preserve China’s
– The Ming emperors decided to isolate China from
the outside world
• The main artistic achievement was the porcelain Ming
• Decline due to weak rulers, corruption, and high taxes,
which all leads to a peasant revolt
– The Manchus, a group of people who live in
Manchuria, invade and conquer the peasant revolt
– The last Ming emperor commits suicide and the
Manchus establish a dynasty
Qing Dynasty 1644 to 1911
• The Manchus established the Qing dynasty, which would
be the last dynasty of China
• The Manchus adopted the Chinese political system and
shared power with them
– Showed respect for Chinese customs and maintained
Confucian traditions
– Remained separate from the Chinese and placed
restrictions on them
• In order to better identify rebels, the Qing gov’t ordered
all men to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles
– Men had to adopt the queue = hair style in which the
front is shaved with a braid or ponytail in the back
• Foreign relation = conquered Taiwan and Tibet
• The Qing dynasty would eventually fall to rebellion in
1911, mostly due to increasing Western influence and
the efforts of European imperialism in the 1800s
Warrior Society
• Japan had no strong central gov’t and local clans, led by
daimyo, began to fight each other for power and land,
along with bandits roaming the countryside
– Daimyo = powerful warlords who held large estates
– The daimyo hired armies of samurai for protection
• Samurai = “those who serve”, similar to knights
– Gradually a feudal warrior society developed
• Most samurai were paid with food, generally rice, for
their military services
– The most powerful samurai received land
– The samurai who got land did not work or live on
that land, but instead profited from it
• The lands were worked by peasants who gave the
samurai money or food as payment each year
• The samurai were highly skilled warriors who wore armor
and often fought on horseback
– Skilled at swords and the longbow, highly respected
• Samurai had to follow a strict code of ethics called
– Bushido = “way of the warrior”, based on loyalty to
one’s lord
– Required Samurai to be courageous, honorable,
obedient, and most importantly, loyal
– Had to serve and obey his lord
• Samurai who failed to obey or protect their lord
were expected to commit suicide by
disembowelment rather than live with their shame