Arctic Tundra

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Transcript Arctic Tundra

Arctic Tundra
By: Kevin, Hayley, and Caroline
Global Locations
 Northern Hemisphere
 Falls between 2 biomes: Taiga and the Ice Caps
Artic Tundra Food Web
Precipitation & Temperature Ranges
 6-10 inches yearly (mostly snow)
 Summer: sun 24/7 (3-12 degrees Celsius)
 Winter: several weeks no sun (-70 to -28 degrees
Common Plants & Animals
 Animals: Polar bear, caribou, arctic fox, snowy hare,
musk ox, rock ptarmigan, narwhal, mountain goat
 Plants: Artic moss, bareberry, arctic willow, arctic
Threats to the Biome
 People living in tundra: air pollution from cities,
drilling for resources
 Overpopulation of Canadian geese: graze when
vegetation is scarce
 Global Warming: shrinks the tundra
Animal Adaptations
Hibernation: bears sleeping through winter
Fur: polar bears and caribou have hollow hairs
Burrowing: hares and lemmings live underground
Body shape: shorter limbs, more compact frames
reduce heat loss
Plant Adaptations
Grow close to ground
Small leaves
Use as little energy as possible
Extremely resistant from cold
Photosynthesize from snow
Keystone Species
 Arctic moss: primary food source
Unique Creatures
 Musk ox
 Narwhal
 Both only live in Arctic Tundra
Endemic Species
 Musk ox, narwhal, bearberry, polar bears, caribou,
Invasive Species
 Canadian geese: growing in population size
 Canis lupus (the dog): active hunters
 Beaver: cut down trees, cause floods
Indicator Species
 Tundra plants: willows, sedges and grasses, lichens,
 Caribou and Reindeer: THE indicator animal species
for the Arctic Tundra, Reindeer is the Old World form
and is smaller and Caribou is North American form
Important Abiotic Factors
 Abiotic factors that influence tundra are strong
winds, rainfall, short summer days, long and cold
winters, and permafrost layer
 Average winter temperature: -34 degrees C.
 Average summer temperature: 3-12 degrees C.
Examples of Resource Partitioning
 A plant species in a nitrogen-limited, arctic tundra
community were differentiated in timing, depth,
nitrogen uptake, and this species dominance is
strongly correlated with the uptake of most available
soil nitrogen forms.