Unit 14 Cold War, Civil Rights, and Vietnam

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Transcript Unit 14 Cold War, Civil Rights, and Vietnam

Unit 12
Ike, Civil Rights,Vietnam, and
Chapters 37-39
I. Affluence
A. White collar workers- Professional type jobs
outnumber “blue collar” jobs for the first time in 1956.
(effect of the G.I. Bill)
B. 40 (m) new jobs 1950-1980, 30 (m) in clerical and
service work…women.
C. Women back in the home (The new “Cult of
Domesticity”)…glorified by TV
1. Many women gave up their war time work to
mother the “baby boom.”
2. Are these women happy?
a. Betty Friedan- The Feminine Mystique
i. Stresses the boredom of the
housewife role.
I. (cont.)
D. Eisenhower takes over; election of 1952
1. Truman decides not to run b/c of
stalemate in Korea and firing MacArthur.
2. Ike=WWII hero, even promises to go to
Korea in person
3. Richard Nixon chosen as VP to appease
the conservative Republicans
a. Red Hunter
b. “Checkers Speech”-shows the
power of television
4. Ike ends the war in Korea
5. Interstate Highway Act?
a. 42,000 miles of interstate=jobs
b. accelerates suburbanization
c. boosts defense
II. Civil Rights Movement
A. Segregation is the main problem.
1. There were two societies in the south.
Schools, restaurants, everything. (de jure vs.
de facto segregation)
a. Violence would also go
unpunished…Emmett Till.
2. Brown v. Board (1954)
a. Warren Court-not scared to take on
taboo issues. “Segregation is
inherently unequal.”
b. Forces the south’s two societies
II. (cont.)
A. (cont.)
3. Rosa Parks (1955)
a. Montgomery Bus Boycott- organized in part
by Martin Luther King, non-violent resistance.
B. Little Rock School Crisis (1957)
1. Most border states integrate schools but
the deep south refuses. (all deliberate
2. AR Gov. Faubus uses the AR national
guard to keep out nine black students.
3. Eisenhower sends in fed. Troops to escort
the “Little Rock 9” to their classes.
4. Eisenhower is prompted more by the
challenge to fed. authority than his love for
AA’s…BUT the fed govt. actually enforces the
II. (cont.)
C. The movement spreads.
1. Southern Christian Leadership
Conference, 1957 (SCLC) started by
MLK and mobilized black churches to
push for Civil Rights.
2. Student Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee, 1960 (SNCC) organized
“sit-ins” to promote desegregation in
public places.
III. Eisenhower and Foreign Policy
A. Remember we are in the middle of the Cold
1. Stalin is gone and replaced by Nikita
Khrushchev in 1953.
B. Eisenhower wants to decrease military
spending but repel communism across the
1. Reduces $$ to Army/Navy and starts
building bombers and nuclear weapons.
2. “Brinkmanship”- willing to push the
Russians to the brink of nuclear war if
a. Secretary of State John Foster
Dulles- “massive retaliation”
b. uprising in Hungary (1956)-proved
brinkmanship might not work
III. (cont.)
C. Eisenhower Doctrine
1. We will combat communism in the middle
east…we need their oil.
a. Iran
b. Suez crisis in Egypt
D. Cuba
1. Castro takes over in 1959: Russia and
Cuba fall in love! Why are the Russians are
so excited?
2. Monroe Doctrine…Khrushchev says that
its dead and if we bother Cuba, get ready for
3. Cuba becomes a big problem under
III. (cont.)
E. The Space Race
1. We wanted to beat the Russians at
2. Russia successfully sends Sputnik into
space in 1957.
a. Our Response? To “keep up” we
rush to launch our own which blows up
on national TV!!!!
3. Leads to criticism of our education system
and prompts the forming of NASA.
F. In the late 1950’s Eisenhower and
Khrushchev are attempting to improve relations.
1. Khrushchev evens visits the U.S.
III. (cont)
G. U-2 Incident (1960)
1. Soviets shoot down a U-2 spy plane.
2. We deny over and over that it is
3. Paris Summit Khrushchev brings out
the Pilot..Uh-OH!!! Eisenhower won’t
even apologize!!!!
4. The improving relations are no
longer improving!!!!
IV. JFK in the White House
JFK won the election of 1960 by only 119,000 votes.
Two issues that helped JFK win?
1. Television-60 million voters watched the KennedyNixon debates.
a. Image replaces substance
2. Civil Rights-he secured the AA vote.
C. Obstacles for JFK
1. Catholic
2. Wealthy 3. Inexperience
D. Camelot-term used to describe the youth and
intelligence surrounding JFK’s White House.
1. the “Best and the Brightest”-JFK’s Cabinet.
IV. JFK (contd)
E. Peace Corps-JFK’s army of volunteers who went to third
world countries to help w/ medical care and agriculture.
F. Berlin and Khrushchev
1. By 1960, 3 million East Germans had used West
Berlin as their ticket out from behind the Iron Curtain.
2. August 1961-Khrushchev builds a wall all the way
around West Berlin to shut off the flow of refugees.
3. JFK can do nothing about it-the wall become a symbol
of the Cold War for the next 30 years.
G. Flexible Response-the build up of non-nuclear weapons
to help contain communism.
1. JFK looking for other options besides “brinkmanship”
IV. JFK (contd)
H. Bay of Pigs-April 1961
1. The attempt to overthrow Castro that JFK inherited
from the Eisenhower administration. JFK CANNOT
a. Use Cuban refugees (Cuban Liberation Front)
from Miami to invade Cuba and get rid of Castro.
b. Completely fails b/c the 1,700 refugees meet
15,000 of Castro’s troops.
c. JFK provides no air support
d. Castro and the communists have just
embarrassed the US.
IV. JFK (contd)
J. Cuban Missile Crisis-October 1962
1. Khrushchev had already stated that the USSR would protect
Cuba a/g US aggression.
2. US spy planes spot the construction of Soviet missile sites IN
3. Russian ships were headed to Cuba with more missile
4. JFK quarantines Cuba-naval blockade-we are prepared to stop
the ships 500 miles from Cuba.
a. We also send 250,000 troops to Florida ready to
5.We didn’t know it at the time, but Soviet troops already had
nuclear capabilities and ordered to launch missiles if attacked.
a. The world was on the verge of annihilation
6. The crisis ended when Khrushchev recalled his ships and
removed the missiles from Cuba.
IV. JFK (contd)
K. JFK and Civil Rights
1. B/c his election was so close, JFK is very careful w/
Civil Rights. But events push JFK into the Civil Rights
2. Freedom Riders-May 1961-Civil Rights workers trying
to end segregation on interstate buses.
a. Their bus is attacked and burned in Anniston, AL
3. Birmingham-MLK, Jr launches a campaign against the
city’s segregationist policies in 1963.
a. Police chief Eugene “Bull” Connor uses dogs and
fire hoses on the demonstrators on national
4. JFK calls for a comprehensive Civil Rights Bill-this
leads to the March on Washington and “I Have a Dream”
IV. JFK(contd)
L. While campaigning for the 1964 presidential race, JFK is
assassinated in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald.
1. Oswald is shot a few days later by Jack Ruby fueling fires of a
V. LBJ and the Great Society
A. Lyndon Johnson was a “New Deal” Democrat from TX.
B. LBJ ensures that JFK’s Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed through
1. It eliminated discrimination in most private facilities open to the
public (theaters, hospitals, restaurants)
2. Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
3. Gave the federal govt. more muscle to enforce school
integration after Brown v. Board
IV. LBJ and the Great Society
A. Lyndon Johnson was a “New Deal” Democrat from TX.
B. LBJ ensures that JFK’s Civil Rights Act of 1964 is
passed through Congress
1. It eliminated discrimination in most private facilities
open to the public (theaters, hospitals, restaurants)
2. Created the Equal Employment Opportunity
3. Gave the federal govt. more muscle to enforce
school integration after Brown v. Board
V. LBJ (contd)
C. LBJ also shows his liberal side by declaring a “war on
poverty” and passing through Congress plans to
provide money and medical assistance to people in
1. LBJ called this program the GREAT SOCIETY.
D. Election of 1964-LBJ DESTROYS Barry Goldwater
1. The Democrats exploited Goldwater as a triggerhappy cowboy.
2. LBJ interprets his huge victory as public approval for
the Great Society, so he pushes for more reform.
E. Goals of the Great Society
1. Aid to education-channeled millions of $’s to poor
2. Medical care for the elderly-Medicare and Medicaid
V. LBJ (contd)
E. Contd
3. Immigration reform-Immigration and Nationality Act of
1965-abolished the National Origins Act of 1924.
4. Voting rights reform-Twenty-Fourth Amendment which
eliminated poll taxes.
a. Freedom Summer-hundreds of Civil Rights
workers went to the South to get AA’s registered to
b. Selma March-Civil Rights workers were going to
march peacefully to Montgomery, AL as part of the
voter registration campaign. They were beaten and
tear-gassed by state police in Selma on TV.
c. LBJ gets the Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed
eliminating literacy tests/allowed federal supervision
V. LBJ (contd)
F. Divisions in the Civil Rights movement
1. MLK’s version of peaceful, non-violent resistance was
criticized by younger, more northern AA’s.
2. Malcolm X-Islam inspired black separatist-referred to
whites a “blue-eyed, white devils”. Assassinated by a
Nation of Islam gunmen in 1965.
3. Black Panthers-militant AA’s who wanted immediate
equality or they would provoke riots in American cities.
(“Burn, baby, burn”)
4. This militancy breeds a backlash among the white
a. MLK is assassinated in Memphis in 1968
b. US cities burned.
Why are Americans dying halfway
around the world in a country that
France wants to control but gives up
I. Vietnam’s struggle
A. China controls for a long time, France takes
them over in the late 1800’s, Japan takes control
in 1940, Japan gets kicked out and guess
what….Vietnam wants to be left alone!!!!
B. Ho Chi Minh- attempts to gain Vietnamese
independence…BUT he is communist.
(Remember Emilio Aguinaldo??)
C. Why do we care?
1. Domino Theory- if one country falls to
communism all the countries around it will as
well. SO we help France!
II. We really get involved
A. In 1954, France is defeated at Dien
Bien Phu…they leave we don’t.
B. Ngo Dinh Diem- becomes the leader of
democratic South Vietnam (with much
support from U.S.)
C. Geneva Accords- fighting between
Communist North and Democratic South
stops and there will be a unification
election in 1956.
D. 1956 Elections never happen…why?
Geneva Accords
III. Fighting
A. During the 1950’s and early ’60’s we were
mostly sending supplies, $$, and advice to the
B. By the time Kennedy is killed there are 15,000
advisor troops in Vietnam.
C. Our Guy, Diem, is corrupt, dishonest, and he
starts killing all the Buddhists.
D. We made him…but we help overthrow him.
Right after that Kennedy is killed.
E. This means Johnson is now President…bad
1. “I am not about to send American boys
thousands of miles away to do a job that
Asian boys should be doing themselves.”
IV. Vietnam under Johnson
A. Gulf of Tonkin (August 1964…hmmm?)Johnson tells everyone that NV shot at one of
our boats that was spying on NV.
1. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-basically
gave Johnson the ability to declare war and
he did not have to answer to anyone.
2. From 1964 to 1968 the # of troops
increase every year.
3. Operation Rolling Thunder- non-stop
bombing of NV (more tonnage of bombs than
used in all of WWII!!!!)
IV. (cont.)
B. Fighting two enemies
1. North Vietnamese known as Vietminh
2. Vietcong-the south Vietnamese communist
guerilla fighters.
3. Both were very difficult to fight because they could
blend in and hide…they even had secret tunnels.
C. “Search and Destroy”
1. We would raid villages looking for the enemy.
2. Agent Orange-a defoliant that wiped out the
jungle landscape.
3. Napalm- “fire gel” that burned anything it touched.
4. Guess who starts to not like us???
D. Ho Chi Minh Trail- a supply line that went from NV
through Laos and Cambodia into SV to supply the
IV. (cont.)
E. Opposition begins
1. By the mid 1960’s movement to protest the war
was beginning. WHY?
a. In 1967 the government said the
enemy was close to defeat.
b. Then on “TET” the North Vietnamese
launched the largest offensive of the war!!!
c. Credibility Gap- people saw coffins
coming home, the Gov’t was saying how
great the war was going so people start to not
believe the gov’t.
d. 1st “Living Room War”
2. Vietnam and Civil Rights
a. AA’s=10% of the population but 20% of the
combat deaths.
3. Counterculture- young people, rebel against
society and especially the war. (The Hippies)
Source: Martin Luther King, 1967
…it became clear to me that the war was doing far
more than devastating the hopes of the poor at
home. It was sending their sons and their
brothers and their husbands to fight and die in
extraordinarily high proportions relative to the
rest of the population. We were taking the black
young men who had been crippled by our
society and sending them eight thousand miles
away to guarantee liberties in Southeast Asia
which they had not found in southwest Georgia
and East Harlem.
IV. (cont.)
E. (cont.)
4. Draft Resistance
a. People really began to protest once
the draft was started.
i. People would burn draft
cards, flee the country, or go
to jail to avoid fighting.
ii. For some reason college/ upper
class kids were not drafted very often.
5. “Hawks” and “Doves” divide the nation.
6. 1968 Election
a. A riot breaks out in Chicago at the
Democratic national convention.
b. Johnson had dropped out
i. War is extremely unpopular and his Great
Society is falling apart b/c of $$$ being spent
on the war
c. Nixon wins because he promises to
end the war! (He also believes his plan will appeal to
the “Silent Majority.”)
Well, come on all of you, big strong men,
Uncle Sam needs your help again.
He`s got himself in a terrible jam
Way down yonder in Vietnam
So put down your books and pick up a
We`re gonna have a whole lotta fun.
Chorus: And it`s one, two, three,
What are we fighting for ?
Don`t ask me, I don`t give a damn,
Next stop is Vietnam;
And it`s five, six, seven,
Open up the pearly gates,
Well there ain`t no time to wonder
Whoopee! we`re all gonna die.
Well, come on generals, let`s move fast;
Your big chance has come at last.
Now you can go out and get those
`Cause the only good commie is the
one that`s dead
And you know that peace can only be
When we`ve blown `em all to kingdom
Come on Wall Street, don`t be slow,
Why man, this is war au-go-go
There`s plenty good money to be
By supplying the Army with the tools of
its trade,
But just hope and pray that if they drop
the bomb,
They drop it on the Viet Cong.
Come on mothers throughout the land,
Pack your boys off to Vietnam.
Come on fathers, and don`t hesitate
To send your sons off before it`s too
And you can be the first ones in your
To have your boy come home in a
Fortunate Son-Creedence Clearwater
Some folks are born made to wave the flag,
Ooh, they're red, white and blue.
And when the band plays "Hail to the chief",
Ooh, they point the cannon at you, Lord,
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no senator's son, son.
It ain't me, it ain't me; I ain't no fortunate one, no,
Some folks are born silver spoon in hand,
Lord, don't they help themselves, oh.
But when the taxman comes to the door,
Lord, the house looks like a rummage sale, yes,
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no millionaire's son, no.
It ain't me, it ain't me; I ain't no fortunate one, no.
Some folks inherit star spangled eyes,
Ooh, they send you down to war, Lord,
And when you ask them, "How much
should we give?"
Ooh, they only answer More! more! more!
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no military
son, son.
It ain't me, it ain't me; I ain't no fortunate
one, one.
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate
one, no no no,
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate
son, no no no,
V. Nixon and the War
A. Nixon wants to “Vietnamize” the war.
1. Gradually remove troops forcing the SV to
fight there own war.
B. My Lai Massacre- We find out that a group of
U.S. soldiers murdered a group women,
children, and the elderly.
C. Nixon Bombs Cambodia
1. Vietcong hid in Cambodia and it was part
of the Ho Chi Minh Trail
2. People here viewed it as Nixon expanding
the war.
3. Kent State Massacre- 4 students shot at
an anti war protest in Ohio
a. Students had burned the ROTC and
were throwing objects at the
Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,
We're finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drumming,
Four dead in Ohio.
Gotta get down to it
Soldiers are cutting us down
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her
And found her dead on the ground
How can you run when you know?
Gotta get down to it
Soldiers are cutting us down
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her
And found her dead on the ground
How can you run when you know?
Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,
We're finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drumming,
Four dead in Ohio.
V. (cont.)
D. Credibility Gap Widens
1. Pentagon Papers (1971)
a. Secret documents that showed the gov’t.
had lied about Vietnam and plans to increase the
number of troops we sent to Vietnam.
E. Nixon reelected in 1972…WHY?
F. War Powers Act (1973)
1. Basically repeals Gulf of Tonkin.
2. President has to notify congress within 48 hours of deploying
troops, and Congress has to declare war within 60 days for the
troops to stay.
VI. The End
A. Jan 1973 U.S. agrees to withdraw troops and NV “promises” to
leave SV alone.
B. We “promise” to help SV if they need it again.
C. 1975 NV reinvades SV…we don’t help. SV has no chance. NV
wins and Vietnam becomes communist.
1. We never lost a war?
VII. The Aftermath
A. U.S. Casualties
1. 56,000 Dead Americans
2. 2,000 missing
3. 300,000 hurt
4. $118 billion
B. South Vietnam
1. 1.1 million soldier dead/missing
2. 1.5 million civilians dead
C. North Vietnam
1. 1.1 million soliders dead/missing
2. 3 million civilians dead
D. Total
1. Over 7 million people dead
What you need
• Domestic Nixon, Watergate, Carter, and
wrap Chapter 39
• Come up w/ study guide for Chapter 40
and maybe 41