Transcript The Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement A breakdown of the standards
• Hamilton Holmes & Charlayne Hunter • • • • 1961 - first black students admitted to UGA 1963 – Graduated UGA Holmes was a successful doctor in Atlanta Hunter became a national radio and television reporter
• Rosa Parks, an African American on her way home from work, boarded the bus and sat in the first seat behind the white section. At the next stop, 6 more white passengers boarded the bus. There weren’t enough seats for them in the white section. The bus driver told Rosa to move. She stayed where she was. She was arrested and jailed. This action led to the boycott of city busses on the day of her trial. The boycott continued for several months.
• • • Distinguished African American minister, scholar, educator, & social activist President of Morehouse College Ideas were used by MLK during the Civil Rights movement.
Little Rock Nine
• The Little Rock Nine were a group of African American students who were forcefully enrolled in Little Rock Central HS in 1957. The action was due to the intervention of President Eisenhower ensuring integration. They were some of the first African American students to integrate a school.
• Hosea Williams worked closely with Martin Luther King, Jr. fighting for Civil Rights. He supervised voter registration in hostile areas, led marches, and was arrested more than 100 times.
• Martin Luther King, Jr. • • • • • • • • Born in Atlanta Principal leader of modern CRM Attended Morehouse Minister Got involved in Civil Rights after arrest of Rosa Parks Formed SCLC Won 1964 Nobel Peace Prize Assassinated in 1968
• Maynard Jackson • • • 1973- Elected first black mayor of Atlanta Called for Affirmative Action programs Airport renamed in his honor after his death (Hartsfield-Jackson Airport)
And special guest star…
• Andrew Young • • Aide to MLK, Jr.
Elected to U.S. House of Representatives in 1972— first African American from GA elected to Congress since 1870s
Also making appearances…
• Eugene Talmadge • Governor (1948 1951) • • Resisted desegregation of schools Implemented GA’s first state sales tax • Lester Maddox • Governor at the time of MLK’s death, he ordered massive police presence at the funeral which kept many people from attending
Scene 1: Turning Points
• • 1896- Plessy v. Ferguson • Supreme Court decision allowing segregation as long as blacks had equal facilities (Separate but Equal) 1910- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Approach was to secure civil rights for blacks through the nation’s courts • Frequently files lawsuits against discriminatory practices
Turning Points, cont.
• Late 1940’s- NAACP went to court regarding school segregation • • Argued that blacks paid the same taxes as whites, but white schools received 4 times as much funding as black schools Courts ruled that educational opportunities for blacks had to improve • Segregationists supported the ruling because they figured they would be able to keep schools segregated as long as equal amounts of money were spent on each
Scene 2: School segregation
• 1954- Brown v. Board of Education • Ruled schools must be desegregated • Said “…in the field of public education, separate but equal has no place. Separate facilities are inherently unequal.” • At the time $190 was spent per white child, but only $132 was spent per black child • This ruling launched the modern Civil Rights Movement
Georgia Flag (1955)
• In 1955, John Sammons Bell approached the General Assembly with the idea to place the Confederate flag symbols of stars and bars on GA’s flag • This change was seen by people around the U.S. as a statement against the Brown v. Board ruling • This flag represented the “past” when GA fought for slavery
Scene 3: SNCC
(Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) • • • • Grew out of the SCLC Encouraged students to join fight for Civil Rights by using non-violent protests Sit-ins Freedom Riders
Scene 4: Sibley Commission
• • Formed by governor Ernest Vandiver to gather info on how people felt about segregation Sibley Commission’s report decreased resistance against desegregation of schools
Scene 5: Albany Movement
• Goal : to desegregate the Albany, GA region • Groups involved: SNCC, Youth NAACP, Negro Voter’s League, & others
Scene 6: The March on Washington
• • Purpose was to demonstrate the tremendous support behind the Civil Rights Movement More than 250,000 citizens of all races gathered and marched in Washington, D.C.
The March on Washington
• The highlight of the event was MLK’s “I have a dream” speech
Scene 7: The Civil Rights Act of 1964
• • Fulfilled the goals of the March on Washington Called for: • Equal voting rights • • Desegregation of public places Desegregation of public schools
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
• To rectify disfranchisement in the South, the Voting Rights Act was signed by President Johnson, thereby strengthening the enforcement of the 15 th amendment.