Motivation and Emotion

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Transcript Motivation and Emotion


 The forces that act on or within an organism to initiate and direct behavior towards a specific goal  A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

Instinct Theories

 Motivation is innate and due to genetic programming  Instincts are rigidly patterned throughout a species and are unlearned  Animals display instinctive behavior patterns such as migration and mating behavior  IE. Salmon returning to their birth place, birds migrating south for the winter

Instinct Motivation

 Examples of Instincts?

 Rivalry  Sympathy Submission Modesty  Fear  Shyness  Cleanliness  Food-Seeking  Sociability  Parental Love  Mating Secretiveness Repulsion Jealousy Curiosity Combativeness Hunting Constructiveness

Drive-Reduction Theory

 Behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs  A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive ) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

Drive-Reduction Motivation

 Homeostasis = The body monitors and maintains relatively constant levels of internal states, such as body temperature, fluid levels, and energy supplies  If any of these levels deviates very far from the optimal level, the body initiates processes to bring the condition back to normal

Drive-Reduction Motivation

 A grumbling stomach and fatigue signal hunger. To bring your energy state back to an optimal level and achieve homeostasis, your behavior is to eat.

 Dry mouth is a signal of water depletion. In order to bring water levels back to normal, you drink.

 Goose-bumps or shivering signals low body temperature. You put on a jacket to get warmer.

Opponent-Process Theory Arousal Theory/Yerkes-Dodson Law  Motivation for behaviors is based on emotions (an emotional homeostasis).  Behaviors are motivated by an emotional drive or influenced by moods.

Opponent-Process Motivation  We’re sad, so we eat to feel better.

 We’re lonely, so we join an online chat group or gaming site to feel connected.

 We’re happy, so we buy a new outfit and go dancing.

 We’re nervous, so we chew on a pen cap to reduce tension.

Incentive Theory –


Motivation  Behavior is motivated solely by the pull of external rewards (reinforcement principal)

Incentive Theory –


Motivation  We’re motivated by money.

 We’re motivated by fame.

 We’re motivated by the attention our behaviors garner.

 We’re motivated by gifts and goods.

Typically with extrinsically motivated behaviors, when a reward no longer follows a behavior, the behavior stops.

Intrinsic Motivation  Intrinsic motivation is when you are motivated by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation drives you to do things just for the fun of it, because you believe it is a good or right thing to do, to perform a particular task or personal interest, personal pleasure, it develops a particular skill, or it’s morally the right thing to do.

 You perform certain behaviors regardless of what other people think or how they react.

Specific Motivations 




 What physiological factors cause us to feel hungry?

 What psychological factors cause us to feel hungry?

 Picky Eaters  Weight Loss and Compulsive Eating

Hunger – Physiological Factors  Glucose/Blood-Sugar Levels  Glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.

 Low blood-sugar levels triggers hunger. Low level messages are sent to the hypothalamus.

 Orexin  Orexin is the hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus.

Hunger – Physiological Factors  Leptin  Leptin is a protein secreted by fat cells. When it is abundant, it causes the brain to increase metabolism and the body’s activity levels, and decreases hunger. When there is too little leptin, it causes the brain to decrease metabolism, lower activity levels, and increases hunger.

Hunger – Physiological Factors  Ghrelin  Gherlin is the hormone secreted by an empty stomach. It sends an “I’m hungry” signal to the brain.

 PYY  PYY is a digestive tract hormone that sends an “I’m not hungry” signal to the brain.

Hunger – Physiological Factors  Lateral Hypothalamus – part of the brain responsible for stimulating hunger  Ventromedial Hypothalamus – part of the brain responsible for stopping eating

Hunger – Psychological Factors

 Our eating habits (when we eat, what we eat, how much we eat, etc.) is not only controlled by internal signals of hunger or fullness, but also by external factors related to taste preferences, culture, media influences, convenience, moods, religion, etc.

Hunger – Psychological Factors  The Garcia Effect – Simply thinking about a certain food and its pairing with an unpleasant episode will curb your desire for that food

Hunger – Psychological Factors  Eating Disorders  Anorexia Nervosa – an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve  Bulimia Nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, or excessive exercise

Sex 

What physiological factors cause us to have sex?

What psychological factors cause us to have sex?

 Dirty song lyrics can prompt early teen sex

Sex – Physiological Factors  Hormones  Estrogen hormone – female sex  Testosterone hormone – male sex

The Sexual Response Cycle

 Excitement  Plateau  Orgasm  Resolution

 Excitement  The genital areas become engorged with blood, causing a man’s penis to swell and a woman’s clitoris to swell, as well as opening a woman’s vagina.

 Plateau  Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase. Secretions from the penis and clitoris may occur.

 Orgasm  Further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure, accompanied by muscle contractions all over the body. Males propel semen from the penis while a female’s uterus is put into a position to receive sperm during this stage.

 Resolution  After orgasm, the body gradually returns to its unaroused state.

 Refractory Period – a resting period after an orgasm, during which a person cannot achieve another orgasm

Sex – Psychological Factors  Seeing, hearing, or reading erotic material  Imagination and Daydreams  Cultural Influences  Personal Morals and Beliefs  Media Portrayals of Sex  Religious Convictions  Drugs and Alcohol  Contraception

Motivation The Humanistic Perspective

 People are motivated to satisfy a progression of internal needs, beginning with the most basic and moving towards the realization of personal potential

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

 Once the needs at a particular level are satisfied, an individual is motivated to satisfy the needs at the next level, and then steadily move upwards  The ultimate goal is self-actualization, the realization of a person’s full potential, self-fulfillment, and the full use of one’s talents and capacities

Physiological Needs  the need to breathe  the need to drink and eat  the need to dispose of bodily waste material  the need for sleep  the need to regulate the bodily temperature  the need to seek shelter  the need to reproduce

 Physiological needs are the very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, sex, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. Once they are alleviated, we may then think about other things.

Safety Needs

 Security of employment  Security of revenues and resources  Physical Security - violence, delinquency, aggressions  Moral and physiological security  Familial security  Security of health

 Safety needs have to do with establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world. We need the security of a home and family. If we don’t feel safe, we may be overly aggressive, too tentative or withdrawn, calculating and manipulative, or completely vulnerable and fearful.

Belongingness and Love Needs

 This involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as friendship, sexual relationship, or having a family. Humans want to be accepted, and to belong to groups, whether it be clubs, work groups, religious groups, family, gangs, etc.

People have a constant desire to feel needed. In the absence of these elements, people become increasingly susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, depression, or become overly friendly and too willing to please in order to be accepted.

Esteem Needs

 The need to be respected, to self-respect and to respect others. Need to engage oneself in order to gain recognition, have an activity which gives value to oneself, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in a low self-esteem and inferiority complexes, or on the other hand an inflated sense of self and snobbishness.


 Self-actualization is the need of a human to make the most of their unique abilities. Maslow described it as follows:  Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is.  A musician must make music, the artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself.

Carl Rogers – Humanistic Perspective  In your attempt to achieve self-actualization, there are three factors important to allowing your true personality to come through. Your motivations must be:


 In order for a personality to grow to its full potential, people need to open with their feelings, drop their facades, be transparent with their innermost desires, and hide nothing

Accepting (Unconditional Positive Regard)  Having an attitude of grace, value, self-worth, and being completely accepting of other people


The need to share and listen to others with true understanding


How do we experience emotions?

James-Lange Theory

 When presented with stimulus, our body reacts first. We cry, we laugh, our heart races, our breathing becomes shallow, we hug, we run away, etc.


the body reacts, we


an emotion based on what behaviors we exhibited.

 I see a bear. My heart is racing and I am running away. Those behaviors mean I am afraid.

Cannon-Bard Theory

 When a stimulating event happens, we feel emotions and physiological changes (such as muscular tension, sweating, etc.) at the same time. There is a


arousal and emotion.

 I see a bear. I feel afraid


heart races and I run away.


Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory

 After the initial stimulus is presented, our body begins to react immediately. But before we experience an emotion, we first evaluate the stimulus and the context it is presented in to determine which emotion is correct.

 My heart is pounding and my palms are sweaty. If the stimulus is a bear, I feel fear and run away. If the stimulus is another runner in a race, I feel competitive and run faster. If the stimulus is a test, I feel nervous and ask for a pass. If the stimulus is my date leaning in for a kiss, I feel excited and pucker up.

What kinds of emotions can we feel?

 Carroll Izard identified 10 basic emotions:  Joy  Interest-Excitement  Surprise  Sadness  Anger  Disgust  Contempt  Fear  Shame  Guilt

Two-Dimensional Model

 Any and all emotions can be measured as “positive”, or “negative” (a value measure of pleasantness or unpleasantness), and again as either “low arousal”, or “high arousal” (the intensity)  Positive may be joy, high arousal is ecstatic, low arousal is relaxed  Negative may be fear, high arousal is terrified, low arousal is nervous

Two Dimensions of Emotion

Facial Expressions - Paul Ekman  Facial expressions of emotion are


culturally determined. They are universal across human cultures and thus biological in origin. Expressions he found to be universal included those indicating anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise.


 Universal Body Language  The Signs of Flirting?