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Technology options under
consideration for reducing
GHG emissions
Next Steps Post-Kyoto: U.S. Options
January 13, 2005
Jeff Williams
Manager, Corporate Environmental Initiatives
[email protected]
Portfolio of Initiatives for
Clean Energy Future
Increase Efficiency
 Reduce Line Losses
Reduce Carbon
 Renewables
 Nuclear
 H2 Storage
 CC w Geologic
 Offsets
Increase Efficiency
40-50% efficient
Fuel Flexibility
Low Cost Carbon Capture
Energy Security
Energy Conservation
50 – 60% efficient
 Process Optimization
Low capital cost
 Reduction of Line Loss
Lower carbon fuel
 Appliance Standards
 Low Income Weatherization
 Customer Incentives
Reduce Carbon Intensity
Renewables – Wind Power
opportunities in the Northeast, offshore, Western & Midwestern states;
provides a hedge against fuel cost spikes and environmental control costs;
Off-peak Hydrogen production for increased utilization
Drivers for wind power
Declining wind cost
Fuel price uncertainty
Green power
Federal & State policies
Energy security
Reduce Carbon Intensity
- Nuclear
• New “passive safe” plant designs reducing capital cost
• Clean, non-emitting
• Hedge against fuel price volatility & environmental costs
•Proven technology with safe operating history
EOR & Geologic
Sequestration – The Vision
CO2 captured from stack gases and
injected into nearby geologic formations
for enhanced oil recovery and ultimate
geologic sequestration.
21- 27 billion barrels of economically
recoverable domestic oil – 2 million
Early demonstration of advanced
technologies will drive down costs,
improve performance and impact
willingness of stakeholders to accept
carbon caps.
Mandatory Carbon Caps with emissions
trading and revenue neutral tax
incentives are adopted that augment
revenue streams for carbon capture &
Help energy security, increasing
domestic supply
Add jobs, royalties and tax revenues
Geologic Storage in the Gulf Coast
Near-term and long-term
sources and sinks linked in a
regional pipeline network
Enhanced oil and gas production
to offset development cost and
speed implementation
Very large volume
storage in stacked brine
formations beneath
reservoir footprints
(estimated 222 GT CO2
storage capacity in Gulf
Coast Region)
Why is Entergy interested in EOR
and Geologic Sequestration?
Provides a bridge to achieve CO2 reductions now
while we build capacity for higher efficiency, lower
carbon portfolio of generating assets in the future;
Gives us a viable option for managing carbon risk
and creating growth opportunities;
Creates jobs, royalties and tax revenues that helps
economic viability of our customer base;
It helps us create the legacy we want to leave for
future generations .
What Needs to Be Done To
Create Physical CO2 Markets?
1) Federal legislation establishing cap and trade system for
greenhouse gases – monetizing ERC value;
2) Federal legislation creating a “Revenue Neutral” Tax Credit for
Carbon Sequestration / Oil Production;
3) Conduct research to reduce cost of Carbon Capture
technology by 25%;
4) Conduct research to demonstrate and understand
performance and fate of geologically sequestered CO2;
5) Develop credible & efficient measurement, monitoring and
verification methods for geologic sequestration;
6) Develop and obtain public acceptance of protocols for
registering ERCs created from geologic sequestration;
7) Invest in regional pipeline backbone that allows efficient
movement of CO2 from high volume sources to reservoirs.