Transcript Document

The Other Side of the HIV/AIDS Debate: Evaluating Scientific Evidence Hidden in Plain Sight

The public face of HIV is well-known

 Although everybody is at risk  HIV is a sexually-transmitted virus that “selectively” preys on     Gay men African-Americans Drug users Just about all of Africa  We are encouraged to be tested  We have been told that the AIDS drugs are the salvation of the entire African continent  HIV is not required to get AIDS

The public face of HIV is well-known

  The journals that review HIV tests, drugs, and patients As well as the instructional materials from    Medical schools Centers for Disease Control (CDC) HIV-test manufacturers    Will all agree with the public’s perception in the large print A different story emerges if you look at the fine print This talk will focus on an analysis of that fine print

Analyze the statistics from the CDC

 Mark Twain: There are three types of lies 1) Lies 2) 3) Damned lies Statistics  Will this theory prove true when we examine the statistics from the CDC’s website?

Analyze the statistics from the CDC

   From 1981 - 2005, the CDC “estimated” the number of HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons living with AIDS) to be ~1 million (956,666)  This is a 0% increase  At the end of 2003, the CDC revised their estimates – the number of HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons living with AIDS) is estimated to be between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 On the surface, this is a 23.9% increase in the number of HIV/AIDS cases The actual estimated increase or decrease rate of HIV infection    The 1981 US population (229,465,714) The current US population (298,444,215) The actual estimated HIV/AIDS cases decreased by 23.1% http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/At-A-Glance.htm

Analyze the statistics from the CDC: Where are we today?

 What made HIV a Black world epidemic and how do we account for the following predicament?

 HIV has gone from a disease that infects white homosexual males in the U.S.

 To that of a disease that traveled across the Atlantic Ocean and infected heterosexual Africans  Then, it crossed the Atlantic Ocean again to infect African American males in prison  Now, HIV has somehow evolved with the intelligence that it should skip the majority of the American population and become synonymous with African Americans and women in particular http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/At-A-Glance.htm

Analyze the statistics from the CDC: HIV/AIDS epidemic?

   Depending on how you present the statistics, African Americans are facing a serious epidemic In 2005, the CDC said that African Americans (12–13% of the American population) make up 49% of the estimated number of HIV/AIDS cases diagnosed Let’s analyze the same information a different way   In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS The “estimated” percentage of people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS   African Americans (18,667/38,797,748) is 0.048% U.S. population (38,096/298,444,215) is 0.013% http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/factsheets/aa.htm

Analyze the statistics from the CDC: HIV/AIDS deaths?

 In 2004, the CDC

“estimated”

AIDS that 17,453 people died from  If these

estimated

AIDS deaths are

“real”

, then these deaths can be verified by looking at the actual number of deaths for that year http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/factsheets/aa.htm

Leading causes of death in the U.S., 2004

Total Deaths 2,398,365 1 Diseases of the heart 2 Malignant neoplasms (cancer) 3 Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) 4 Chronic lower respiratory diseases (emphysema, chronic bronchitis) 5 Unintentional injuries (accidents) 6 Diabetes mellitus 7 Alzheimer’s disease 8 Influenza and pneumonia 9 Nephritis and nephrosis (Kidney disease) 10 Septicemia (systemic infection) 11 Intentional self-harm (suicide) 12 Chronic liver/cirrhosis (liver disease) 13 Essential (primary) hypo and hypertension renal disease 14 Parkinson’s disease 15 Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids 654,092 550,270 150,147 123,884 108,694 72,815 65,829 61,472 42,762 33,464 31,647 26,549 22,953 18,018 16,959 All other causes 418,810 http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_19.pdf

High public policy priority: Rethinking/revising

  Although 62% of all deaths recorded in the U.S. in 2004 are caused by heart disease, cancer, strokes, and lower respiratory diseases If you follow the money budgeted per death, it becomes apparent, the amount of NIH funds allocated for HIV/AIDS research (72.6%) are excessive http://www.fairfoundation.org/update.htm

Sexual transmission of HIV

 The CDC says HIV is sexually transmitted   Padian NS et al., Heterosexual transmission of Human from a ten-year study     American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997;146(4):350-7 Followed 175 HIV-discordant couples Although 25% of the couples had unprotected sex No seroconversion after entry into the study was observed  None of the unprotected individuals became HIV+ Sex has nothing to do with HIV/AIDS   ( http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/326/7381/126/e)

Sexual transmission of HIV: The prostitute paradox

  1.

Six additional studies published in prestigious scientific journals that demonstrate HIV can not be sexually 2.

3.

4.

5.

Smith GL, Smith KF. Lack of HIV infection and condom use in licensed prostitutes. Lancet. 1986;1392.

6.

Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis

 David Rasnick, PhD       Earned his living as a designer of protease inhibitors (more on this later) It has taken me 15 years of curiosity, acceptance, doubt, study, understanding, new doubt, followed by new understanding, to come to terms with HIV/AIDS--and I'm a scientist, I’m able to plow through the intimidating technical literature No wonder the public has bought the contagious AIDS theory The truth is guarded by experts and hidden by a thick forest of jargon, credentials, and all those papers The fraud, incompetence, and outright lies produced by the cult of HIV have already been documented But holding the perpetrators accountable will not be easy

Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis

 Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD and her group in Perth, Australia published articles concluding that there is no evidence for the existence of HI viruses   Papadopulos-Eleopulos E: Is HIV the cause of AlDS? Continuum 1997;5:8 19 .  Stefan Lanka, PhD – has experience in molecular biology, molecular genetics, marine biology, and virology says all retroviruses, including HIV, are biologically inexistent and their phenomenology is based on laboratory artifacts    Lanka S. Fehldiagnose AIDS. Wechselwirkung l994;16:48-53. Lanka S. HIV-Realität oder Artefakt? Raum und Zeit 1 995;77:1 7-27. Lanka S. HIV - reality or artifact? Continuum 1995;3/1 :4-9

Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis

Roberto A. Giraldo, MD

  Most serologic tests that look for the presence of antibodies against germs use neat serum [undiluted]  Tests that look for antibodies to hepatitis A and B viruses, rubella virus, syphilis, hystoplasma and cryptococus, etc are just a few examples     To prevent false positive reactions, some serologic tests use diluted serum Measles, varicelia, and mumps viruses use a dilution of 1:16 Cytomegalovirus uses a dilution of 1:20 Epstein-Barr Virus uses a dilution of 1:10 ELISA test for HIV uses a dilution of 1:400  If undiluted or neat serum is used, every human being on planet earth will react positive to the ELISA test for HIV  Tested his own serum (HIV+ at less dilute concentrations) ( http://www.virusmyth.net/aids/data/rgelisa.htm

) - 1998

Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis

 Rebecca Culshaw, PhD  Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Univ Texas at Tyler, BS, MS, PhD Research Interests: Mathematical Biology Five peer reviewed publications and seven conference papers in ten years  Created quite a stir by announcing “Why I quit HIV” in March 2006, after having devoted ten years to mathematical modeling of how HIV causes AIDS  The entire basis for this theory is wrong  AIDS is not a disease so much as it is a sociopolitical construct that few people understand and even fewer question http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig7/culshaw1.html

Understand the HIV/AID debate: Decouple HIV from AIDS

 HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus  Retroviruses    Contain the genetic material RNA rather than DNA Contain genes that encode the proteins gag, pol, env, and (often) pro  AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome  As an illness, AIDS originated in the search by the CDC for sick homosexual men, also suffering from Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) and/or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)     KS was named for Dr. Moritz Kaposi who first described it in 1872 Sarcoma is a cancer Pneumocystis carinii is a common microorganism (fungus) that exists in mammals (rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, dogs, sheep, humans, etc.) First described around World War II in severely malnourished and premature infants

Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS

             Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs (fungal infection) Candidiasis esophageal Cervical cancer (invasive) Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal disease) Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary (fungal infection) Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal for longer than 1 month (protozoan parasite) Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen or lymph nodes (Herpes) Encephalopathy bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal infection) Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (for more than 1 month) (parasitic infection) Kaposi's sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8 ) Lymphoma Burkitt's, immunoblastic or primary brain (variety of cancers)

Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS

               Mycobacterium avium complex Mycobacterium, other species, disseminated or extrapulmonary Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii) (fungal infection) Pneumonia (recurrent) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Salmonella septicemia (bacterial infection) Toxoplasmosis of the brain (protozoan Toxoplasma gondii) Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) Wasting syndrome Malaria Dysentery Leprosy Vaccine and antibiotic damage Amyl nitrate damage (poppers, used by homosexual males) Malnutrition

HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items

 Can not detect the actual virus    There is no such thing as an AIDS test They test for non-specific antibodies in the body Antibodies are proteins, so please keep this in mind designation will be used   There are inherent problems using antibody tests to diagnose any disease 

HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items

  Examples of how misleading antibody tests are     People can have positive antibody responses to certain laboratory chemicals, but this does not mean they are infected with laboratory chemicals People vaccinated for polio will test positive for antibodies to polio even though they don’t have polio People exposed to TB will test antibody positive for TB but this does not necessarily mean they are currently infected with TB The test for glandular fever measures antibody response to red blood cells of sheep and horses, but a positive test does not mean that someone is infected with sheep or horse blood, or that animal blood causes glandular fever These examples are shown to demonstrate why antibody responses alone cannot determine if someone is infected with a particular virus

HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted

 1988, the Mayo Clinic reported that “the Western Blot (WB) method lacks standardization, is cumbersome, and is subjective in interpretation of banding patterns”  1988, the Journal of the American Medical Association published an article stating that 19 different labs, testing ONE blood sample got 19 different WB results (JAMA, 260, 1988)  1993, a review in Bio/Technology reported that the FDA, the CDC, the Department of Defense, and the Red Cross  All interpret “WB” differently  All the other major US labs for HIV testing also have their own criteria for interpreting WB

HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted

HIV status depends on where you live       11 interpretations of what constitute HIV+ Africa is the easiest place to be deemed HIV+ Australia is the hardest 6 different U.S. interpretations People can literally move to a different location and they will no longer be HIV+ What other contagious disease do you know of that behave in this manner?

AFR = Africa; AUS = Australia; FDA = US Food and Drug Administration; RCX = US Red Cross; CDC = US Center for Disease Control; CON = US Consortium for Retrovirus Serology Standardization; GER = Germany; UK = United Kingdom; FRA = France; MACS = US Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study 1983-1992

HIV antibody tests

:

No virologic gold standard

 The medical literature adds something truly astounding!

   1987, the New England Journal of Medicine reported that the meaning of positive tests will depend on the joint (ELISA/WB) false positive rate  The real rate is unknown because there is no recognized gold standard 1996, Journal of American Medical Association reported: The diagnosis of HIV infection in infants is particularly difficult  Because there is no reference or “gold standard” 1997, Abbott laboratories, the world leader in HIV-test production stated   2000, the Journal AIDS reported that "2.9% - 12.3%" of women in a study tested positive, depending on the test used 

No virologic gold standard: Insert from Abbott Laboratory

http://www.healtoronto.com/testkits.html

High false positive rate with HIV tests

    1992, the Lancet reported ("HIV Screening in Russia")   For 66 true positives, there were 30,000 false positives In pregnant women, "there were 8,000 false positives for 6 confirmations" 2000, the Archives of Family Medicine reported   The tests described above are standard HIV tests, the kind promoted in the ads  ELISA or EIA (Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay)

HIV tests are non-specific: ELISA & WB

 The ELISA is the first test that is used for HIV detection     ELISA - a mixture of proteins, which are said to come only from that can bind to these proteins are allowed to do so If all of the proteins in the mixture come from HIV, “and” if all of the antibodies recognize only HIV proteins, a positive reading means 1993, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD   The proteins in the mixture are not unique to HIV for the ELISA or WB The antibodies in the blood samples are not specific only to HIV proteins Papadopulos-Eleopulos, E., Turner, V.F., Papadimitriou, J.M. 1993. "Is a positive Western Blot proof of HIV infection?" Bio/Technology. 11:696-707

 

HIV tests are non-specific: Example of a Western Blot

All retroviruses  Contain genes that encode for the proteins ( gag, pol, env) In the U.S., there are 5 major proteins used to determine a person’s HIV status env gag pol

gp160 gp120 gp 41

p55 p18

p24

p65 p51

p31

Image reproduced from Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, 2000. ASM Press.

HIV tests are non-specific: Analyzing the important protein bands in the WB

   p24: Found in all endogenous retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2) p31: The amino-acid sequences of the "purified HIV (p30-p32)” are identical to that of a normal protein found in the human immune system called "Class II histocompatibility DR proteins"   p41: Protein called actin - the most abundant protein in human cells  In some cells, actin accounts for 15% of the total cellular content   p120, p160 - oligomers of p41, for instance (p 120 = p40 *3 and p160 = p40*4)

66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests

1. Anti-carbohydrate antibodies 2. Naturally-occurring antibodies 3. Passive immunization: receipt of gamma or immune globulin 4. Leprosy 5. Tuberculosis 6. Mycobacterium avium 7. Systemic lupus erythematosus 8. Renal (kidney) failure 9. Hemodialysis/renal failure 10. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients 11. Flu 12. Flu vaccination 13. Herpes simplex I 14. Herpes simplex II 15. Upper respiratory tract infection (cold or flu) 16. Recent viral infection or exposure to viral vaccines 17. Pregnancy in multiparous women 18. Malaria 19. High levels of circulating immune complexes

66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests

20. Hypergammaglobulinemia (high levels of antibodies) 21. False positives on other tests, including RPR (rapid plasma reagent) test for syphilis 22. Rheumatoid arthritis 23. Hepatitis B vaccination 24. Tetanus vaccination 25. Organ transplantation 26. Renal transplantation 27. Anti-lymphocyte antibodies 28. Anti-collagen antibodies (found in gay men, haemophiliacs, Africans of both sexes and people with leprosy) 29. Serum-positive for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody (both found in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoantibodies) 30. Autoimmune diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis 31. Acute viral infections, DNA viral infections 32. Malignant neoplasms (cancers) 33. Alcoholic hepatitis/alcoholic liver disease 34. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests

35. Hepatitis 36. "Sticky" blood (in Africans) 37. Antibodies with a high affinity for polystyrene (used in the test kits) 38. Blood transfusions, multiple blood transfusions 39. Multiple myeloma 40. HLA antibodies (to Class I and II leukocyte antigens) 41. Anti-smooth muscle antibody 42. Anti-parietal cell antibody 43. Anti-hepatitis A IgM (antibody) 44. Anti-Hbc IgM 45. Administration of human immunoglobulin preparations pooled before 1985 46. Hemophilia 47. Hematologic malignant disorders/lymphoma 48. Primary biliary cirrhosis 49. Stevens-Johnson syndrome 50. Q-fever with associated hepatitis 51. Heat-treated specimens

66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests

52. Lipemic serum (blood with high levels of fat or lipids) 53. Hemolyzed serum (blood where haemoglobin is separated from the red cells) 54. Hyperbilirubinemia 55. Globulins produced during polyclonal gammopathies 58. 66. (which are seen in AIDS risk groups) 56. Healthy individuals as a result of poorly-understood cross-reactions 57. Normal human ribonucleoproteins Other retroviruses 59. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies 60. Anti-nuclear antibodies 61. Anti-microsomal antibodies 62. T-cell leukocyte antigen antibodies 63. Proteins on the filter paper 64. Epstein-Barr virus 65. Visceral leishmaniasis Receptive anal sex

References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests

1. Agbalika F, Ferchal F, Garnier J-P, et al. 1992. False-positive antigens related to emergence of a 25-30 kD protein detected in organ recipients. AIDS. 6:959-962.

2. Andrade V, Avelleira JC, Marques A, et al. 1991. Leprosy as a cause of false-positive results in serological assays for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1. Intl. J. Leprosy. 9:125. 3. Arnold NL, Slade RA, Jones MM, et al. 1994. Donor follow up of influenza vaccine-related multiple viral enzyme immunoassay reactivity. Vox Sanguinis. 67:191. 4. Ascher D, Roberts C. 1993. Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody fingerprinting. AIDS. 6:241. 5. Barbacid M, Bolgnesi D, Aaronson S. 1980. Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins: Demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than as consequence of exposure to virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1617-1621. 6. Biggar R, Melbye M, Sarin P, et al. 1985. ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet. ii:520-543. 7. Blanton M, Balakrishnan K, Dumaswala U, et al. 1987. HLA antibodies in blood donors with reactive screening tests for antibody to the immunodeficiency virus. Transfusion. 27(1):118. 8. Blomberg J, Vincic E, Jonsson C, et al. 1990. Identification of regions of HIV-1 p24 reactive with sera which give "indeterminate" results in electrophoretic immunoblots with the help of long synthetic peptides. AIDS Res. Hum. Retro. 6:1363. 9. Burkhardt U, Mertens T, Eggers H. 1987. Comparison of two commercially available anti-HIV ELISA's: Abbott HTLV-III ELA and DuPont HTLV-III ELISA. J. Med. Vir. 23:217. 10. Bylund D, Ziegner U, Hooper D. 1992 Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Lab. Med. 12:305-333.

References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests

11. Challakere K, Rapaport M. 1993. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ELISA results in low-risk subjects. West. J. Med. 159(2):214-215. 12. Charmot G, Simon F. 1990. HIV infection and malaria. Revue du practicien. 40:2141. 13. Cordes R, Ryan M. 1995. Pitfalls in HIV testing. Postgraduate Medicine. 98:177. 14. Dock N, Lamberson H, O'Brien T, et al. 1988. Evaluation of atypical human immunodeficiency virus immunoblot reactivity in blood donors. Transfusion. 28:142. 15. Esteva M, Blasini A, Ogly D, et al. 1992. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:1071-1073. 16. Fassbinder W, Kuhni P, Neumayer H. et al. 1986. Prevalence of antibodies against LAV/HTLV-III [HIV] in patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis and following renal transplantation. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 111:1087. 17. Fleming D, Cochi S, Steece R. et al. 1987. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in low-incidence areas. JAMA. 258(6):785. 18. Gill MJ, Rachlis A, Anand C. 1991. Five cases of erroneously diagnosed HIV infection. Can. Med. Asso. J. 145(12):1593. 19. Healey D, Bolton W. 1993. Apparent HIV-1 glycoprotein reactivity on Western blot in uninfected blood donors. AIDS. 7:655-658. 20. Hisa J. 1993. False-positive ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus after influenza vaccination. JID. 167:989.

21. Isaacman S. 1989. Positive HIV antibody test results after treatment with hepatitis B immune globulin. JAMA. 262:209.

References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests

22. Jackson G, Rubenis M, Knigge M, et al. 1988. Passive immunoneutralisation of human immunodeficiency virus in patients with advanced AIDS. Lancet, Sept. 17:647.

23. Jindal R, Solomon M, Burrows L. 1993. False positive tests for HIV in a woman with lupus and renal failure. NEJM. 328:1281-1282. 24. Jungkind D, DiRenzo S, Young S. 1986. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III [HIV] antibody test. J. Clin. Micro. 23:381. 25. Kashala O, Marlink R, Ilunga M. et al. 1994. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses among leprosy patients and contacts: correlation between HIV-1 cross reactivity and antibodies to lipoarabionomanna. J. Infect. Dis. 169:296-304. 26. Lai-Goldman M, McBride J, Howanitz P, et al. 1987. Presence of HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in immune serum globulin preparations. Am. J. Clin. Path. 87:635. 27. Langedijk J, Vos W, Doornum G, et al. 1992. Identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by HIV-1 false-positive sera. AIDS. 6:1547-1548. 28. Lee D, Eby W, Molinaro G. 1992. HIV false positivity after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet. 339:1060. 29. Leo-Amador G, Ramirez-Rodriguez J, Galvan-Villegas F, et al. 1990. Antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus in generalized lupus erythematosus. Salud Publica de Mexico. 32:15. 30. Mackenzie W, Davis J, Peterson D. et al. 1992. Multiple false-positive serologic tests for HIV, HTLV-1 and hepatitis C following influenza vaccination, 1991. JAMA. 268:1015-1017. 31. Mathe G. 1992. Is the AIDS virus responsible for the disease? Biomed & Pharmacother. 46:1-2. 32. Mendenhall C, Roselle G, Grossman C, et al. 1986. False-positive tests for HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in alcoholic patients with hepatitis. NEJM. 314:921.

References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests

33. Moore J, Cone E, Alexander S. 1986. HTLV-III [HIV] seropositivity in 1971-1972 parenteral drug abusers - a case of false-positives or evidence of viral exposure? NEJM. 314:1387-1388. 34. Mortimer P, Mortimer J, Parry J. 1985. Which anti-HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] assays for screening and comfirmatory testing? Lancet. Oct. 19, p873. 35. Neale T, Dagger J, Fong R, et al. 1985. False-positive anti-HTLV-III [HIV] serology. New Zealand Med. J. October 23. 36. Ng V. 1991. Serological diagnosis with recombinant peptides/proteins. Clin. Chem. 37:1667-1668. 37. Ozanne G, Fauvel M. 1988. Perfomance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects. J. Clin. Micro. 26:1496. 38. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E. 1988. Reappraisal of AIDS - Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause? Med. Hypo. 25:151. 39. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, and Papadimitriou J. 1993. Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV infection? Bio/Technology. June 11:696-707. 40. Pearlman ES, Ballas SK. 1994. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus screening test related to rabies vaccination. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118-805. 41. Peternan T, Lang G, Mikos N, et al. Hemodialysis/renal failure. 1986. JAMA. 255:2324. 42. Piszkewicz D. 1987. HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies after immune globulin. JAMA. 257:316. 43. Profitt MR, Yen-Lieberman B. 1993. Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Inf. Dis. Clin. North Am. 7:203. 44. Ranki A, Kurki P, Reipponen S, et al. 1992. Antibodies to retroviral proteins in autoimmune connective tissue disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 35:1483.

References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests

45. Ribeiro T, Brites C, Moreira E, et al. 1993. Serologic validation of HIV infection in a tropical area. JAIDS. 6:319. 46. Sayers M, Beatty P, Hansen J. 1986. HLA antibodies as a cause of false-positive reactions in screening enzyme immunoassays for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type III [HIV]. Transfusion. 26(1):114. 47. Sayre KR, Dodd RY, Tegtmeier G, et al. 1996. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western blot tests in non-infected blood donors. Transfusion. 36:45. 48. Schleupner CJ. Detection of HIV-1 infection. In: (Mandell GI, Douglas RG, Bennett JE, eds.) Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:1092. 49. Schochetman G, George J. 1992. Serologic tests for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In AIDS Testing Methodology and Management Issues, Springer-Verlag, New York. 50. Simonsen L, Buffington J, Shapiro C, et al. 1995. Multiple false reactions in viral antibody screening assays after influenza vaccination. Am. J. Epidem. 141-1089. 51. Smith D, Dewhurst S, Shepherd S, et al. 1987. False-positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in a population of midwestern patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Transfusion. 127:112. 52. Snyder H, Fleissner E. 1980. Specificity of human antibodies to oncovirus glycoproteins; Recognition of antigen by natural antibodies directed against carbohydrate structures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1622-1626. 53. Steckelberg JM, Cockerill F. 1988. Serologic testing for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Mayo Clin. Proc. 63:373. 54. Sungar C, Akpolat T, Ozkuyumcu C, et al. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients. Nephron. 67:251.

References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests

55. Tribe D, Reed D, Lindell P, et al. 1988. Antibodies reactive with human immunodeficiency virus gag-coated antigens (gag reactive only) are a major cause of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity in a bood donor population. J. Clin. Micro. April:641. 56. Ujhelyi E, Fust G, Illei G, et al. 1989. Different types of false positive anti-HIV reactions in patients on hemodialysis. Immun. Let. 22:35-40. 57. Van Beers D, Duys M, Maes M, et al. Heat inactivation of serum may interfere with tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III [HIV]. J. Vir. Meth. 12:329. 58. Voevodin A. 1992. HIV screening in Russia. Lancet. 339:1548. 59. Weber B, Moshtaghi-Borojeni M, Brunner M, et al. 1995. Evaluation of the reliability of six current anti-HIV 1/HIV-2 enzyme immunoassays. J. Vir. Meth. 55:97. 60. Wood C, Williams A, McNamara J, et al. 1986. Antibody against the human immunodeficiency virus in commercial intravenous gammaglobulin preparations. Ann. Int. Med. 105:536. 61. Yale S, Degroen P, Tooson J, et al. 1994. Unusual aspects of acute Q fever-associated hepatitis. Mayo Clin. Proc. 69:769. 62. Yoshida T, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, et al. 1987. Evaluation of passive particle agglutination test for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Clin. Micro. Aug:1433. 63. Yu S, Fong C, Landry M, et al. 1989. A false positive HIV antibody reaction due to transfusion-induced HLA DR4 sensitization. NEJM.320:1495. 64. National Institue of Justice, AIDS Bulletin. Oct. 1988.

Low CD4 T-cell count: Non-HIV/AIDS diagnosis

    Prior to 1993, the definition of AIDS required clinical symptoms of serious disease According to the 1993 redefinition of AIDS, clinically healthy count drops below 200. This redefinition is absurd - a variety of physical and even psychological conditions have been shown to cause very low CD4 cell counts in "HIV negative" individuals Literally overnight, this change of definition caused the number of people with "AIDS" in the United States to double   From 1993 to 1997, the CDC disclosed the percentage of AIDS patients that had AIDS'93, but not AIDS'87 Starting in 1998, the CDC would no longer disclose which percentage of AIDS cases was "AIDS'93" but not "AIDS'87", and stonewalled all attempts of AIDS rethinkers to acquire it

Low CD4 T-cell count: A Variety of causes account for this phenomenon

                Many viral infections Bacterial infections Parasitic infections Sepsis Tuberculosis Coccidioidomycosis (acquired from inhalation of spores) Burns Trauma Intravenous injections of foreign proteins Malnutrition Over-exercising Intravenous drug users Pregnancy Normal daily variation Psychological stress and social isolation Malaria

Low CD4 T-cell count: References

14.

15.

16.

17.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Alberts SC, Sapolsky RM, Altmann J (1992). Behavioral, endocrine and immunological correlates of immigration by an aggressive male into a natural primate group. Hormones and Behavior 26; 167-178. Andreoli TE et al. (1993). Cecil essentials of medicine. W.B. Saunders; Philadelphia. Antonaci S, Jirillo E, Stasi D, De Mitrio V, La Via MF, Bonomo L (1988). Immunoresponsiveness in hemophilia: lymphocyte- and phagocyte-mediated functions. Diagn Clin Immunol;5(6):318-25 Antonacci AC, Good RA, & Gupta S (1982). T-cell subpopulations following thermal injury. Surg Gynecol Obstet; 155(1); 1-8. Atzori (2000). In Vitro activity of HIV protease inhibitors against Pneumocystis carinii. J Infect Dis; 181; 1629 1634. Azar ST, Melby JC (1993). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in non-AIDS patients with advanced HIV infection. Am J Med Sci May;305(5):321-5. Babameto G & Kotler DP (1997). Malnutrition in HIV infection. GI Clin North America: 26(2): 393-413. Balter M (1997, November 21). How does HIV overcome the body's T-cell bodyguards? Science 278: 1399-1400. Beck JS, Potts RC, Kardjito T, and Grange JM (1985). T4 lymphopenia in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Exp Immunol, Volume 60, 49-54. Beisel WR (1996, october). Nutrition in pediatric HIV infection: setting the research agenda. Nutrition and immune function: overview. J Nutr;126(10 Suppl):2611S-2615S Berkman L & Syme S (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: a nine year follow up study of alameda county residents. Am J Epidemiol; 109(2): 186-203. Blatt SP, Lucey CR, Butzin CA et al. (1991). Total lymphocyte count as a predictor of absolute CD4+ percentage in HIV infected persons. JAMA 269; 622-626. Bonneau RH, Sheridan JF, Feng N, Glaser R (1993). Stress-induced modulation of the primary cellular immune response is mediated by both adrenal-dependent and adrenal independent mechanisms. Journal of Neuroimmunology; 42; 167-176. Britton S, Thoren M, Sjoberg HE (December 20, 1975). The immunological hazard of Cushing's syndrome. British Medical Journal 4; 678-680. Burns DN, Nourjah P, Minkoff H, et al. (1996). Changes in CD4 and CD8 cell levels during pregnancy and post partum in women seropositive and seronegative for HIV-1. Am J Obstet Gyn; 174(5); 1461-1468. Carney WP, Rubin RH, Hoffman RA, et al. (1981). Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in CMV mononucleosis. The Journal of Immunology 126(6); 2114-2116. Carr DJJ, Serou M (1995, November). Exogenous and endogenous opioids as biological response modifiers. Immunopharmacology; 31(1): 59-71

Low CD4 T-cell count: References

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

Cassone (1999). In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of HIV protease inhibitors. J Infect Dis; 180; 448-453. Castilla JA, Rueda R, Vargas L, et al. (1989). Decreased levels of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes during normal human pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol; 15; 103-111. Castle S, Wilkins S, Heck E, Tanzy K, Fahey J (1995, September). Depression in caregivers of demented patients is 93 CDC (1999). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. Chandra RK (1997, August). Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr; 66(2) :460S-463S Chirenda J (1999). Low CD4 count in HIV-negative malaria cases, and normal CD4 count in HIV-positive and malaria negative patients. Cent Afr J Med; Volume 45(9): page 248. Christeff N, Gharakhanian S, Thobie N et al. (1992). Evidence for changes in adrenal and testicular steroids during HIV infection. J Acquired Imm Def Syn; 5: 841-846. Coodley GO, Loveless MO, Nelson HD et al. (1994). Endocrine function in the HIV wasting syndrome. J Acquired Imm Def Syn; 7: 46-51. Culver KW, Ammann AJ, Partridge JC, Wong DF, Wara DW, Cowan MJ (1987, August). Lymphocyte abnormalities in infants born to drug-abusing mothers. J Pediatr;111(2):230-5. Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Marmor M et al. (1987, July). Development of AIDS, HIV seroconversion, and potential cofactors for CD4 cell loss in a cohort of intravenous drug users. AIDS 1(2): 105-111. Feeney C, Bryzman S, Kong L, Brazil H, Deutsch R, Fritz LC (1995, Oct). T-lymphocyte subsets in acute illness. Crit Care Med; 23(10):1680-5. Fox CH (1996). The pathogenesis of HIV-disease. J Nutr; 126(10 Suppl): 2608S. (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and at Risk for AIDS. Science ; 224:500-502. Garrett L (2001). Change in Guidelines for HIV; U.S. officials to tout new treatment policy. Newsday (New York, NY), January 17, 2001, Wednesday, page A22. Goldman (2000). Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 21st edition, W.B. Saunders, Inc. 382-91. Guyton AC & Hall JE (1996). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders; New York

Low CD4 T-cell count: References

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India; 47(3): 318-25 Herbert TB & Cohen S (1993). Stress and immunity in humans: A meta-analytic review. Psychosomatic Medicine; 55;364-379. House et al. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science ;241:540-545. virus (EBV) infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40(3); 436-446. Kennedy S, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1988 Mar). Immunological consequences of acute and chronic stressors: mediating role of interpersonal relationships. Br J Med Psychol; 61(Pt 1):77-85. Keusch GT & Thea DM (1993). Malnutrition in AIDS. Med Clin North America: 77(4); 795-813. psychiatric inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine; 46(1): 15-23. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Dura JR, Speicher CE et al. (1991). Spousal caregivers of dementia victims: Longitudinal changes in immunity and health. Psychosomatic Medicine; 53;345-362. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1992). Acute, psychological stressors and short-term immunological changes. Psychosomatic Medicine; 54;680-685. Kotze M (1998). Ability of the total lymphocyte count to accurately predict the CD4+ T-cell count in a group of HIV1-infected South African patients. Int Conf AIDS - 1998; 12: 810 (abstract no. 42187) Laudenslager M, Ryan SM, Drugan RC, et al. (1983). Coping and immunosuppression: Inescapable but not escapable shock suppresses lymphocyte proliferation. Science, 221;568-570. Learmont J, Tindall B, Evans L, et al (1992). Long-term symptomless HIV-1 infection in recipients of blood products from a single donor. Lancet ;340:863-867. Leserman J, Jackson ED, Petitto JM, et al. (1999) Progression to AIDS: the effects of stress, depressive symptoms, and social support. Psychosomatic Medicine; 61; 397-406. Lewi DS, Kater CE, Moreira AC (1995 Mar-Apr). Stimulus of the hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis with corticotropin system (article in Portuguese). Rev Assoc Med Bras;41(2):109-18. Lortholary O, Christeff N, Casassus P, Thobie N, Veyssier P, Trogoff B, Torri O, Brauner M, Nunez EA, Guillevin L Metab ;81(2):791-6 Madhok R, Gracie A, Lowe GD, Burnett A, Froebel K, Follett E, Forbes CD (1986, Oct 18). Impaired cell mediated

Low CD4 T-cell count: References

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

69.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

59.

McChesney MB & Oldstone A (1987). Viruses perturb lymphocyte functions. Ann Rev Immunol, Volume 5: 279-304. McDonough RJ, Madden JJ, Falek A, et al. (1980). Alteration of T and null lymphocyte frequencies in the peripheral 2539-43. Membreno L, Irony I, Dere W, Klein R, Biglieri EG, Cobb E (1987 Sep). Adrenocortical function in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;65(3):482-7. Mientjes GH, Miedema F, van Ameijden EJ, Hoek AA, et al. (1991). Frequent injecting impairs lymphocyte reactivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users. AIDS: 5; 35-41. Momose JJ, Kjellberg RN, Kliman B (1971). High incidence of cortical atrophy of the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in Cushing's disease. Radiology 99; 341-348. Nishijima MK, Takezawa J, Hosotsubo KK et al. (1986). Serial changes in cellular immunity of septic patients with multiple organ-system failure. Critical Care Medicine, Volume 14(2); 87-91. Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Clerici M (1996, July). Glucocorticoids and interferon-alpha in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;81(7):2601-6 Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Taddei A, Clerici (1997, Oct). Glucocorticoids and the immune function in the Metab; 82(10): 3260-3. O'Mahoney JB, Palder SB, Wood JJ, et al. (1984). Depression of cellular immunity after multiple trauma in the absence of sepsis. J Trauma: 24(10); 869-75. Ornish D (1997). Love and Survival: the Scientific Basis for the Healing Power of Intimacy; Harper Collins; New York. Psychosom;66(4):199-207. Polk HC, George CD, Cost K, et al. (1986). A systematic study of host defense processes in badly injured patients. Ann Surg; 204; 282-299. Sapolsky RM, Uno H, Rebert CS, Finch CE (1990 Sep). Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid exposure in primates. J Neurosci ; 10(9):2897-902. Sapolsky RM (1996, August 9). Why stress is bad for your brain. Science 273; 749-750. for AIDS. Medical Hypotheses: 50; 67-80. Sridama V, Pacini F, Yang S, et al. (1982). Decreased levels of helper cells: A possible cause of immunodeficiency in pregnancy. New Eng J Med: 307(6); 352-356. Starkman MN, Gebarski SS, Berent S et al. (1992). Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Biological Psychiatry; 32: 756-765. Behav;64(5):733-41

The viral load test: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

     PCR is method of rapidly synthesizing many copies of a specific segment of DNA PCR is the biotechnology version of the Xerox machine The amount of DNA you have to study increases exponentially Viral load tests suppose to measure the amount of HIV RNA present in the blood stream, but, instead they measure genetic fragments, not levels of active virus in the body 1.

2.

The viral load hypothesis fails to answer two important questions If billions of HIV are present, why is PCR necessary to find them?

If PCR is the only way HIV can be detected, how is it possible for scientists to verify the results of PCR?

The viral load test: Invalid and not reproducible

   The “so-called viral load numbers” are not reproducible, not even when the same technology is used A nationwide team of orthodox AIDS researchers led by doctors Benigno Rodriguez and Michael Lederman of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland  Disputed the value of viral load tests standard used since 1996 to assess health, predict progression to disease, and grant approval to new AIDS drugs after their study of 2,800 HIV positives concluded viral load measures failed in more than 90% of cases to predict or explain immune status Published in the September 27, 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association

The viral load test: Invalid and not reproducible

   In a study by French researchers  15 HIV-1 strains using 3 viral load tests were analyzed The samples contained the same load of this alleged “HIV” as  p24: Found in all endogenous retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2) If the tests were true measurement of HIV RNA the results should have been the same for all strains in a given test and all tests for a specific strain  Every number to the right of the first column should be identical Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 15:174.

Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS statistics from the CDC’s website

 In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS  African Americans (12–13% of the American population) make up 49% of the estimated number of HIV/AIDS cases

diagnosed

 (38,096 *0.49) 18,667  If HIV exits, the actual HIV diagnoses that should have occurred can be calculated by subtracting   The diagnoses that are a direct result of a low CD4 cell count The false positives generated from the joint ELISA/WB test

Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS statistics from the CDC’s website

   1/2 (38,096) of those diagnosed with HIV/AIDS are from a low CD4 count

(19,048)

Assuming a 90% false positive rate based upon the joint WB and ELISA antibody tests 19,048 *0.90

(17,143)

The HIV/AIDS cases should have been 38,096 – 19,048 17,143 (

1,905

people in the entire U.S.)  Since 49% of those estimated to be infected with HIV are African Americans  This means that

933

out of ~39 million African Americans may have this thing that is called “HIV”  Since antibodies are really not a good measure to detect any disease, then this number should be reduced to

“Zero”

If commerce laws were applied equally

 HIV tests would have to bear a disclaimer just like cigarettes  “WARNING"          This test will not tell you if you are infected with a virus It may confirm that you are pregnant It may confirm that you have used drugs or alcohol It may confirm that you have been vaccinated It may confirm that you have a cold, liver disease, arthritis It may confirm that you are stressed, poor, hungry, or tired It may confirm that you are an African It will not tell you if you are going to live or die In fact, we really do not know what testing “positive or negative” means at all Liam Scheff is an investigative journalist whose research was the basis for the 2004 BBC documentary, "Guinea Pig Kids," about the forced use of experimental AIDS drugs.

The fine print: Summary of scientific evidence

 They tell you, unabashedly  HIV tests are arbitrarily interpreted  HIV tests are not standardized (no gold standard)  The term HIV does not describe a single entity  HIV describes a collection of non-specific, cross-reactive cellular material  HIV can not be sexually transmitted  HIV is not required for AIDS  What is causing people to become sick?

The Drugs: HIV therapy - AZT

      Liquid Plummer Developed in the 1960s as a chemotherapy for leukemia A "nucleoside analog" drug, or DNA chain terminator  Stops the DNA molecule from duplicating Kills cells that try to reproduce Chemotherapies are notoriously immunosuppressive     Then you get the person off the therapy as quickly as possible Then build up the person’s immune system Officially acknowledged side effects

The Drugs: HIV therapy – protease inhibitors

  Proteases  Are some of the most important enzymes (proteins) that we have  They aid in the breakdown of proteins in the body (digestion of protein) Protease inhibitors  Throw your body out of homeostasis  Inhibit the body's natural proteases   Prevent the digestion of proteins  If the digestive process is incomplete, undigested proteins can wind up in a person’s circulatory system, as well as in other parts of the body Will cause an autoimmune response

Side effects - protease inhibitors

  Invirase (Hoffmann-LaRoche inserts)   Endocrine/Metabolic: Dehydration, dry eye syndrome, hyperglycemia, xerophthalmia   Hematlogic: Anemia, microhemorrhages, pancytopenia, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia  

Side effects - protease inhibitors

 Invirase (continued)  Psychological: Agitation, amnesia, anxiety, depression, dream excessive, euphoria, hallucination, insomnia, intellectual ability reduced, irritability, lethargy, libido     Reproductive System: Prostate enlarged, vaginal discharge Resistance Mechanism: Abscess, angina tonsillaris, candidiasis, hepatitis, herpes staphylococcal, influenza, lymphadenopathy, tumor Respiratory: Bronchitis, cough, dyspnea, epistaxis, hemoptysis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory Skin and Appendages: Acne, dermatitis, dermatitis seborrheic, eczema, erythema, ulceration, sweating increased, urticaria, verruca, xeroderma  Special Senses: Blepharitis, earache, ear pressure, eye irritation, hearing decreased, otitis, taste alteration, tinnitus, visual disturbance Urinary system: Micturition disorder, urinary tract infection 

Side effects - protease inhibitors

 Crixivan (Merck, Sharp & Dohme inserts)  Body as a whole/site unspecified: Abdominal distention, chest pain, syncope  Cardiovascular system: Cardiovascular disorder, palpitation  Digestive system: Acid regurgitation, anorexia, aphthous stomatitis, eructation, flatulence, gastritis, gingivitis, glossodynia, gingival liver cirrhosis  Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia, lymphadenopathy, spleen disorder  Metabolic/Nutritional/Immune: Food allergy 

Side effects - protease inhibitors

 Crixivan (continued)      Nervous system and psychiatric: Agitation, anxiety, anxiety disorder, bruxism, excitement, fasciculation, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuralgia, neurotic disorder, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, sleep disorder, somnolence, tremor, vertigo Respiratory system: Cough, dyspnea, halitosis, pharyngeal hyperemia, pharyngitis, respiratory infection Skin and skin Appendage: Body odor, contact dermatitis, dermatitis, dry skin, seborrhea, skin disorder, skin infection, sweating, urticaria Special senses: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, eye pain, eye swelling, orbital edema, taste disorder Urogenital system: Dysuria, hematuria, hydronephrosis, nocturia, premenstrual abnormality, urine sediment abnormality, urolithiasis

Side effects – AIDS drugs

Photos of an infant with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a blistering, peeling, potentially fatal skin rash. It is one of the known side-effects of the AIDS drug Nevirapine (Viramune). Viramune is one of the primary drugs being readied for distribution in Africa.

“Viramune is not a cure for HIV-1 infection.”

Side effects – Protease inhibitor effects

BUFFALO HUMPS" between the shoulders and protruding abdomen

Confidential name-based HIV infection reporting

 There are 33 States and 4 Dependent Areas that will not release your name if you test HIV +  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming  American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands  Illinois is not on that list

AIDS in Africa: The Bangui definition

In 1985, the WHO called a meeting in Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, to define African AIDS

The meeting was presided over by CDC official Joseph McCormick

McCormick wrote about it in his book "Level 4 Virus hunters of the CDC," saying…

 If I could get everyone at the WHO meeting in Bangui to agree on a single, simple definition of what an AIDS case was in Africa, then, imperfect as the definition might be, we could actually start counting the cases  The result was - African AIDS would be defined by physical symptoms: fever, diarrhea, weight loss, and coughing or itching AIDS in Africa: an epidemiological paradigm, Science, 1986

In Africa, HIV status is irrelevant

   Even if you test negative, you can be called an AIDS patient In 1992, a study in Ghana: 59% of the seronegative (HIV negative) group were clinically diagnosed as having AIDS  All the patients had three major signs: weight loss, prolonged diarrhea, and chronic fever  Lancet, October, 1992 Across Africa: 50% (2215 out of 4383) African AIDS patients from Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Lusaka, Zambia, and Kinshasa, Zaire, were HIV-antibody negative  British Medical Journal, 1991

In Sub-Saharan Africa

   ~60% of the population lives and dies without safe drinking water, adequate food, or basic sanitation Sep, 2003 report in the Ugandan Daily "New Vision" outlined the situation in Kampala, a city of ~ 1.3 million inhabitants, which, like In the flood zone  Heaps of unclaimed garbage among the crowded houses       Latrines are built above water streams During rain - residents open a hole to release the feces from the latrines The rain then washes away the feces to the streams The residents fetch water from the streams Some defecate in polythene bags, which they throw into the stream (flying toilets)

False positive rate in South Africa

  Mukai Chimuterngwende-Gordon  83% chance that the HIV test mechanism in Africa would produce false results http://new.hst.org.za/news/index.php/20030118/