Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for

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Transcript Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for

Tomislav Skračić, MA
Undergraduate English
Course for
5th Semester
Essential reading:
SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers 2,
Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2009.
LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog
jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2003.
Fuel injection & Efficient combustion
IMO requirements and other regulations on the reduction
of exhaust emissions (ispušne emisije) and environment
protection are becoming increasingly tighter (stroži) and
the allowed limits are getting lower. IMO societies have
laid down guidelines (odredila smjernice) for future limits
on emission contents (ispušnih komponenti), taking into
consideration different applications and exploitation
conditions of marine engines. The trend is to completely
eliminate pollutants.
The world's leading engine manufacturers have developed
technologies able to meet (zadovoljiti) the new
requirements and regulations. Increasing the number of
injectors, ACERT and slide-valve technologies, together
with application of water-in-fuel emulsion (emulzija
goriva s vodom), selective catalytic reduction (SCR selektivna katalička redukcija), and biodiesel fuels
represent comprehensive and efficient solutions. Some of
them are presented here.
ACERT® technology.
Caterpillar has developed the ACERT technology (Advance
Combustion Emission Reduction Technology) that involves
fuel delivery, electronics, air management (razvod zraka),
and combustion management.
One of the key breakthroughs (iskorak / proboj) in ACERT
technology has been the development of fuel delivery
into the combustion chamber through multiple injections
(višestruko ubrizgavanje). The multiple-injection process
introduces fuel into the combustion chamber in a number
of precisely-controlled microbursts (mikro-ubrizgavanja).
Injecting fuel in this way allows for precise shaping of the
combustion cycle. A controller (an electronic unit) directs
the injector system to deliver precise quantities of fuel at
exactly the right time during combustion.
In addition to enhanced combustion and fuel saving, the
ACERT technology enables optimum performance, i.e.
maximum output and efficiency with minimum emissions at
a wide range of load and engine rating (širokom rasponu
opterećenja i brzina vrtnje).
It is one of the best and most comprehensive technologies
aimed at reducing harmful emissions of air pollutants from
vessels, and it represents one of the solutions to the
existing and future IMO regulations on exhaust emissions.
MAN B&W slide valve (injector).
In order to reduce harmful emissions from their slow-speed
engines, MAN B&W has launched a new slide-type valve for
fuel injection. This valve type has minimised the risk of
subsequent penetration (naknadni prodor) of fuel into the
combustion chamber after the fuel injection. This directly
results in reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide (CO)
(ugljičnog monoksida) and volatile organic compounds
(VOC) (štetnih organskih komponenti) as, in the engines
featuring this type of valve, there is no incomplete
In addition to the development of slide-type fuel valves,
MAN B&W has also optimised the nozzle for achieving
lower NOx emissions (emisija dušičnih oksida). Compared
to conventional fuel valves and nozzles, in this way a 25%
NOx reduction at 90% engine load has been achieved, with
an increase in fuel consumption of only 1%.
Likewise (također / isto tako), these engines have a
reduced smoke emission. Slide valves fitted to MAN marine
engines ensure optimised combustion and cleaner engines.
Enhanced combustion decreases the amount of non-burnt
hydrocarbons (neizgorenih ugljikovodika) (around 30%) and
particulate matter (PM) (krutih čestica), which results in
less smoke.
Furthermore (nadalje), the piston top ends suffer less
load and wear, resulting in minimum wear of the exhaust
valve seats. Most importantly, the slide valve, i.e. the fuel
valve nozzle, entirely complies (zadovoljava / u skladu je
s) with the IMO requirements on NOx emissions reduction.
Modified fuel injectors (courtesy of MAN B&W)
EXERCISE 1 – Use the following words to complete the
text: associated, costs, decrease, however, research,
There has been some ____________ into increasing the
number of injectors per cylinder. Increasing the number
of injectors enables the combustion process to be better
controlled and ____________ more efficient
combustion. It has been reported that a ____________
in NOx from 30% is achievable, ____________ there is a
considerable cost associated with the need to have
additional injectors, piping and ____________
equipment. As well as additional equipment, a
significant increase in maintenance ____________ can
be expected.
EXERCISE 2 – Answer the following questions:
1. Name some of the world's famous engine makers.
2. Name some technologies and applications aimed at
reducing harmful emissions from vessels.
What harmful components do the exhaust emissions
What is the major drawback (mana) of increasing the
number of injectors for achieving efficient combustion?
How is enhanced combustion achieved by ACERT
How is incomplete combustion prevented in new MAN
Besides efficient combustion and meeting IMO
requirements, name some other advantages of these new
EXERCISE 3 – Translate into English:
a) Proizvođači motora prisiljeni su razvijati nove tehnologije,
za zadovoljavanje (for fulfilling / meeting) IMO propisa.
MAN B&W je uveo klizne ubrizgače kao standardnu
opremu (standard feature) svakog novog motora.
Da bi se postigli bolji rezultati u smanjenju ispušnih
emisija (exhaust emissions reduction), MAN razvijaja i
sekundarne metode kao što su primjena emulzije goriva s
vodom (water-in-fuel emulsion) i selektivna katalička
redukcija (selective catalytic reduction).
Standardni motor dozvoljava emulziju goriva s 20% vode
pri punom opterećenju (at full load).
SCR je trenutno najefikasnija metoda za smanjivanje
emisije NOx-a, a smanjenje iznosi 85%-95%.
EXERCISE 3 – Translate into English:
f) Urea, reducirajuće sredstvo (means of reduction), se
ubrizgava u ispušne plinove pri temperaturi od 290-450°C.
g) Prije ulaska u Područje kontroliranih emisija (Emission
Control Area), količina goriva u svakom tanku, kao i (as well
as) datum, vrijeme i pozicija broda moraju se unijeti (be
recorded) u Knjigu o uljima (Oil Record Book).
h) Optimalno izgaranje rezultira smanjenjem emisija ugljičnog
monoksida (CO), štetnih organskih komponenti (VOC),
dušičnih oksida (NOx), neizgorenih ugljikovodika (non-burnt
hydrocarbons) i krutih čestica (particulate matter – PM).
i) Kod teških dizelskih goriva, moguća je čista emulzija vode i
goriva, dok kod benzina treba primijenjivati emulgatore
(emulsifier) kao što su biljni proteini (plant proteins).