Creating A Nation

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Transcript Creating A Nation

Standards
SSUSH6 The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and
population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of
the new nation.
a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward
migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the
addition of new states.
c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on
the development of a national identity.
e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.
SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional
and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the
different responses to it.
a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s
invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts
for muskets.
b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the
emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.
Northwest Ordinance
0 The Northwest Ordinance established guidelines for the
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government of the Northwest Territory, a large area
bounded by the Great Lakes, Mississippi and Ohio
Rivers, the state of Pennsylvania and Canada.
It was one of the most important laws ever adopted, for
it became a model for all territories that later entered
the Union as states.
Pioneers poured into the area, setting themselves up as
territories under a governor, secretary and three judges.
Ohio was the first state created in the Northwest
Territory, followed by Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and
Wisconsin.
Basic freedoms, similar to those under our Constitution,
were guaranteed the new states. There were two new
provisions. One called for publicly supported education
and the other prohibited slavery in the Northwest
Territory.
What are some major events
leading to The War of 1812?
0 US shipping was being harassed, and cargo
was seized.
0 Britain required licenses for ships bound for
Europe
0 France confiscated cargo from licensed ships
0 Impressment of American sailors
0 Many British sailors became naturalized US
citizens and deserted British vessels and joined
American crews.
0 British Navy kidnapped these sailors off
American ships and had them rejoin the British
Navy
What are some major events
leading to The War of 1812?
0 Economic Diplomacy
Fails
0 Embargo Act of 1807
halted all trade with
Europe
0 Embargo is a
government ban on
trade with other
countries
0 Embargo was unpopular
in port cities, especially
in the North
What was Madison’s role
leading up to The War of
1812?
0 Non-Intercourse Act
0 Forbade trade with France and Britain; however
President could reopen trade when either
France or Britain lifted restrictions
0 Was this successful? Why or Why not
0 War Hawks
0 Southern congressmen favored war, even though
it hurt the east
0 Why did the War Hawks want war?
Declaration of War
0 June of 1812
Madison asked
Congress for
declaration of war
0 Vote was split
along regional lines
0 War started with
Invasion of Canada
Fire…
0 In August 1814,
British Forces
Sailed into
Chesapeake Bay
and capture
Washington D.C.
0 They burn the
White House and
the Capitol
0 Madison and
Congress Barely
escape
Oh Say Can You See…
0 Unlike D.C., Baltimore
was Ready for the British
0 The City militia inflicted
heavy casualties on the
British
0 After bombarding Fort
McHenry on September
13, 1814 The British
abandon the attack
0 Francis Scott Key
witnessed the
bombardment and
penned a poem which
becomes the National
Anthem.
If The War of 1812 ended in a
tie, why was it important?
0 Gave the United States a National
Identity
0 We were able to hold our own
against the British
0 Started us thinking about
continuing westward expansion
0 Ended bad feelings toward the
British
0 Creates a hero in Andrew Jackson
and the Western Frontiersmen
The Monroe Doctrine
0 In December 1823, in a message to Congress, Monroe
set forth the following principles, which would later
become known as the Monroe Doctrine:
0 The Western Hemisphere was no longer open for
colonization
0 The political system of the Americas was different from
Europe
0 The United States would regard any interference in
Western hemispheric affairs as a threat to its security
0 The United States would refrain from participation in
European wars and would not disturb existing colonies in
the Western Hemisphere
Impact of the Monroe
Doctrine
0 The impact of the Monroe Doctrine was mixed.
0 The Doctrine was successful in that it kept France,
Spain and other powers out of the region, but Britain
would long remain the dominant trade power in Latin
America.
0 The Doctrine was a failure from the standpoint that
the Latin American nations resented the Big Brother
behavior of the U.S.
0 It was not until the 1880s that the United States had
the clout to enforce the Monroe Doctrine.
Manifest Destiny:
0 The belief that the United States would
spread to the Pacific Coast
0 Caused by:
0 Land hungry Americans who wanted the rich,
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sparcely settled lands
Patriots who feared that the British would get it
Eastern Merchants whose ships traded with
Asia and needed ports on the Pacific Coast
Democratic-minded people who felt that the
spread of the nation would spread freedom
Nationalists who sought national greatness
Mr. Manifest Destiny
0James K. Polk
•Elected President in 1844
•Added more territory to the
US (by any means) than any
other President
•Died 103 days after his single
term ended
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US Territorial Expansion
When?
•1776
A - 13 Original Colonies
From Where?
•Great Britain
Why?
•US declared
independence
from Great
Britain
A
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US Territorial Expansion
When?
•1783
B - Western Lands
From Where?
•Great Britain
Why?
•Part of results
of Treaty of
Paris (ended
Revolutionary
War)
A
B
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US Territorial Expansion
When?
•1803
C - Louisiana Purchase
From Where?
•France
Why?
•Napoleon
needed $
•Jefferson
wanted to buy
New Orleans
C
A
B
•He got all of
this instead!
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US Territorial Expansion
When?
•1819
D - Florida
From Where?
•Spain
Why?
•Andrew
Jackson invaded
•Spain then sold
it to us for $5
million
C
A
B
D
19
US Territorial Expansion
When?
•1845
E - Texas
From Where?
•Republic of Texas (Independent Country)
Why?
•Texas independent
from Mexico in 1836
•Northerners feared it
would become a slave
state
•Fears finally overcome
in 1844 Presidential
election
C
A
B
E
D
20
US Territorial Expansion
When?
F - Oregon Territory
•1846
From Where?
•Great Britain
Why?
•Claimed by four
countries (G. Britain,
Russia, Spain, & US)
F
C
•Americans
demanded “54° 40’ or
fight!”
•Britain compromised
49° & US accepted
A
B
E
D
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US Territorial Expansion
When?
G - Mexican Cession
•1848
From Where?
•Mexico
Why?
•Polk offers to buy G from
Mexico & they refuse
F
C
•War!
•US wins
•In Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo, US offers $15
million for G
G
A
B
E
D
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Cotton Gin
· It was difficult to make a profit from cotton
because cottonseeds were removed by hand.
Ex.) It took one person an entire day to clean one
pound of cotton.
Cotton Ball,
picked 1915
Georgia
• Therefore, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in
1793.
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin.
· Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin.
· People ignored the
patent and built their
own.
· Whitney never
became wealthy from
his invention.
• Plantation owners began to earn a lot of money
growing cotton.
• This caused farmers to increase their dependency
on slave labor.
“The First
Cotton
Gin"
(image
from 1869)
• Native American tribes such as the Cherokees
and Creeks were forced onto reservations so that
farmers would have more land to grow cotton.
Interchangeable Parts
•Used to build muskets
•Easiest and fastest way to
make guns
•Easier to make = more
produced in shorter time
•Popular = low costs
•Quality not as good as those
hand made
•Factory owners chose quantity
over quality