Major Events 1800-1850

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Transcript Major Events 1800-1850

Major Events during the
First Half of the
Nineteenth Century
Who was the first
president of the United
•George Washington
Define political party.
A group of people with
similar beliefs about how
to run the government.
What were the first
two political parties?
• Federalists
• Democratic-Republicans (
also called simply
Who led the
•Alexander Hamilton
•John Adams
What were the beliefs
of the Federalists?
• Strong national government
• Industrial economy (factories
or manufacturing)
What groups
supported the
What part of the country
gave the Federalists their
strongest support?
• Northeast (New England)
Who led the
•Thomas Jefferson
•James Madison
What were the beliefs of
the DemocraticRepublicans?
• Weak national government
• Strong state governments
• Agricultural economy (farming)
What region gave the
strongest support to the
•The South
What groups supported the
• Farmers
• Artisans (Skilled Craftsmen)
• Frontier Settlers
Who was elected
president in 1800?
What president
bought the Louisiana
•Thomas Jefferson
From what country did the
United States purchase the
Louisiana Territory?
How did the Louisiana
Territory affect the size of
the United States?
•Doubled it
Who did President
Jefferson send to explore
the Louisiana Territory?
•Lewis and Clark
Where did the Louisiana
Territory lie?
•West of the
Mississippi River
Who was the guide for
the Lewis and Clark
What war lasted from
1812 to 1815?
•The War of 1812
What two countries
fought the War of 1812?
•The United States
•Great Britain
What territory did the
United States claim after
the War of 1812?
•The Oregon
What territory did the
United States acquire in
From what country did
the United States
acquire Florida?
Who served as Chief
Justice of the Supreme
Court during the first 30
years of the 19th century?
•John Marshall
To what political party
did John Marshall
•The Federalists
Why were the Marshall
court’s decisions
• Made the federal courts a
co-equal branch of the
United States government
How did the Supreme
Court rule in Marbury v.
•Declared a federal
law unconstitutional
What is the power of
judicial review?
• A court’s power to
declare a law
What is the Supreme
Court’s main check on
the power of Congress?
•Judicial Review
How did the Marshall court
rule in McCulloch v.
• Forbid the states from taxing
agencies of the federal government
• Declared a Maryland state law
Who said “the power
to tax is the power to
•John Marshall
Why was McCulloch v.
Maryland important?
• Established the power of the
federal government over the states
• Strengthened the federal courts’
power of judicial review
What issue did the
Monroe Doctrine
•Foreign Policy
What set forth the basic
principles of American foreign
policy from 1823 until the end
of the 19th century?
•The Monroe
What were the 4
points of the
Monroe Doctrine?
• No more European colonies in the
• Countries in Western Hemisphere
were republics; countries in Europe
were monarchies
• If European countries threatened
any country in Americas, then they
threatened the United States
• U.S. would stay out of European
What continents are in
the Western
•North America
•South America
What is a republic?
• A Representative Democracy
• The People elect
representatives to make the
Who rules in
•Kings and
What was the most important
point of the Monroe Doctrine?
• European countries
should stay out of the
affairs of the Western
What precedent did the
Monroe Doctrine set for
American presidents ?
• American presidents would
consider it a threat to the United
States, if European countries
meddled with countries in the
Western Hemisphere
What were two trends in
American life during the first
half of the 19th century?
• Westward Movement
• Economic
What type of economy
developed in the North
during the first half of the
19th century?
• An Industrial Economy
What two transportation
improvements encouraged
westward movement and
economic development?
Who invented the
cotton gin?
•Eli Whitney
What did the
cotton gin do?
•Separated cotton
seeds from the cotton
What did the cotton gin
cause to spread throughout
the Deep South?
• The “Cotton Kingdom”
based on African-American
Did the cotton gin
increase or decrease the
demand for slaves?
What resulted from
American immigration
into Texas?
• An armed revolt
against Mexican rule
What happened at the
Battle of the Alamo?
• The Mexican army
killed all the Texans.
What later happened
when the Texans defeated
the Mexican army?
• Texas gained its
What action did the
U.S. eventually take in
regard to Texas?
• Annexed Texas
• Added Texas to the U.S.
What idea provided
political support for
territorial expansion?
•Manifest Destiny
What was Manifest
• The belief that it was God’s
will for the United States to
stretch from the Atlantic to
the Pacific Ocean
What war lasted from
1846 to 1848?
•The Mexican War
What two countries fought
in the Mexican War?
•The United States
Who won the
Mexican War?
•The United States
What was the
Mexican Cession?
• The territory the United
States got from Mexico at
the end of the Mexican
What present-day
states were part of
the Mexican
• California
• Nevada
• Utah
• Arizona
• part of Colorado
• part of New Mexico