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Tatum S. Adiningrum
Margaret Astrid Tika
Workshop Aims
To introduce referencing style used at Binus
To introduce summarising, quoting and paraphrasing
To introduce reference list
What is referencing
Referencing is a system used in the academic
community to indicate where ideas, theories, quotes,
facts and any other evidence and information used
to support your assignments, can be found.
(Staffordshire University, 2008)
Referencing method:
 American
Psychologi Association (APA) – used at BI
 Harvard style
 Note System
 etc
Why do you need to reference?
To show that you appreciate other people’s ideas
To show that you have done your assignment, not
only the paper result, but the research that goes
with it
To give direction to other people who might need to
trace your source.
To avoid plagiarism accusation
What do you need to reference
Anything that is not your own idea. In Academic Writing, this often includes, but is
not limited to:
Books and E-books
Journal articles, both paper and electronic;
Internet sources;
Articles from magazines and newspaper;
Lectures and seminars;
E-mail communication;
Telephone conversation;
Your own past assignment.
Basically, everything that you use to build your argument and does not come from
your own thinking. However, common knowledge does not need to be cited.
How to blend yours and theirs
1. Quoting
Direct quote: copying a source word-by-word, without
Short quote:
As plagiarism is often seen as an academic offence, the
treatment of plagiarisers is mostly through “catch and
punish” (Devlin, 2006, p. 46), thus the focus is how to deal
with students when caught.
According to Diamond (1998), “Because technology begets
more technology, the importance of an invention’s diffusion
potentially exceeds the importance of the original invention”
(p. 301).
1. Quoting
Long quote:
In relation to students from non-English speaking backgrounds, Scollon
(1995, p.6) argues:
The apparent difficulty that at least some non-native writers
of English have incorrectly using reference, quotation, and
paraphrase, and in avoiding plagiarism, might be better construed as
reflecting a different ideological base. That is, some of this difficulty
should be understood not as an inability to learn something simple, but
rather as unconscious resistance to an implicit ideology…
Examples taken from Adiningrum (2008).
1. Quoting
You use quotes:
- When you feel that the author’s words are very
powerful and that you cannot paraphrase them
without changing their meaning or impact to the
Do not overuse quotations, treat them like a
precious jewel!
2. Paraphrasing (Indirect quoting)
In simple words: to write other people’s ideas in
your own words.
Reading the material - complete understanding of the
ideas – rewrite in your own words, in your own style
It is a skill, thus it will get better with practice.
It is not, however, substituting words with their
 Paraphrase a sentence when you want the
readers to understand all of its points.
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they
overuse quotation in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your
final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should
strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking
Lester, J. D.Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976) 46-47
A. Acceptable paraphrase:
In research papers, students
often quote excessively, failing to
keep quoted material down to a
desirable level. Since the
problem usually originates during
note taking, it is essential to
minimize the material recorded
verbatim (Lester, 1976).
Taken from Adiningrum, 2008.
B. A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many
direct quotations when they take
notes, resulting in too many of
them in the final research paper.
In fact, probably only about
10% of the final copy should
consist of directly quoted
material. So it is important to
limit the amount of source
material copied while taking
notes (Lester, 1976).
3. Summarizing
A summary presents only the most important ideas of
a passage, leaving out specific details.
Summarize a passage when you want to give a brief
overview of a text.
Summarized texts must be cited too.
How to make a good summary
1. Read carefully, and find the main points of the
2. The points presented should follow chronological order
3. Leave out the flowery details, stick to the important
main points!
4. Reference List
You need to give a comprehensive reference list at
the end of your essay.
It contains of all sources you have written in your
APA Sample Reference List
Adiningrum, T.S. (2008). Plagiarize Like an Expert, a handbook for Indonesian
students at Flinders University. Unpublished assignment. (Unpublished material)
Department of Educational and Training (2005). Professional Learning in
Effective Schools: The Seven Principles of Highly Effective Professional
Learning. Melbourne: Leadership and Teacher Development Branch, Office
of Education. (BOOK)
Salmi, J. (2009). The Challenge of Establishing World-Class University.
Washington DC: The World Bank. (BOOK)
Simons, P. & Ruijters M.N.C (2004). Learning Professionals: Towards an
Integrated Models. In Boshuizen H., Bromme, R. & Grubber, H. (eds), Gaps
& Transitions on the Way from Novice to Expert. New York: Kluwer Academic
Publishers. (CHAPTER ON A BOOK)
Staffordshire University, (2008). Referencing Terminology & Abbreviations.
(downloaded 10 August 2010 from
ces/jargon/index.php (Webpage)
Webster-Wright, A. (2009). Reframing Professional Development Through
Understanding Authentic Professional Learning. Review of Educational
Research 79 (2), pp. 702-739. (JOURNAL)
Where can you find the reference
information needed in a book?
Year of
Do I have to
cite everything?
You do not need to document:
 Widely known facts, or
 Information or judgment considered “common
Consider the followings
Which information is common knowledge?
a. Barack Obama is the 44th and current President
of the United States.
b. Obama’s policy highlights the importance of
international cooperation.
So what do we do with the other
We cite it!
Broad and Chang (2010) pointed out that Obama’s
policy highlights the importance of international
Note: the above is a paraphrase.
Do not panic...
You will be introduced further to the skills of using
summary, paraphrase and quotes in the Academic
English class.
You can find guides to APA referencing used at BI in
our website:
, or
17/51632/APA_Referencing_6th_ed.pdf (quick guide)
Useful Glossary
Academic Integrity all work which is presented is
produced by the student alone, with all sources and
collaboration fully acknowledged
Cheating gaining unfair advantage from other students
Collusion submitting work as if it had been done
individually when it has been done jointly with one or
more other person unless the topic coordinator has
indicated that this is acceptable for the specific work
in question
Useful Glossary
Collaboration working together with other students as
directed by your lecturer/tutor, in which each student
contributes equally to the end results
Hidden memory presenting what is thought as an
original idea while it is actually a result of forgotten
past reading
Paraphrase reproduction of other people’s ideas in
your writing using your own words
Useful Glossary
Patchwriting artificial make-over of other people’s
sentences in your writing, might be a form of a bad
Plagiarism the use of another person’s words or ideas
as if they were one’s own
Reference every source that you use to produce your
writing; to provide acknowledgment within and at the
end of your piece of writing
Quote reproduction of other people’s words in your
writing without alteration.
Reference List
Adiningrum, T.S. (2008). Plagiarize Like an Expert, a handbook for Indonesian
students at Flinders University. Unpublished assignment.
Staffordshire University, (2008). Referencing Terminology & Abbreviations.
(downloaded August 2010 from
University of Houston; Academic Center. (2003). Learn to summarize. Retrieved from