Wildavsky: The Organization of Time

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Transcript Wildavsky: The Organization of Time

class 2 (09/09/13)
beginning as a researcher
root (from Latin):
re: again
circare (circum): to go around,
a research attitude: to describe and
• the world is out there—but descriptions
of the world are not. The world does not
speak. Only we do. (Richard Rorty)
• supposing is good, but finding out is
better (Mark Twain, n.d.)
• one is tempted to think that [researchers]
are often like children playing cowboys; they
emulate them in everything but their main
work, which is taking care of cows. The main
work of scientists is thinking and making
discoveries of what was not thought of
beforehand. [Researchers] often attempt to
“play scientist” by avoiding the main work.
(David Bakan, 1968, p. 64)
a unified perspective
1. all research consists of making
observations of some part of the world and
drawing inferences about that part of the
world from those observations
– social scientists have devised many
useful ways to observe the world
“As far as our propositions are certain, they
do not say anything about reality, and as far
as they do say anything about reality, they
are not certain.” (Albert Einstein)
2. research findings are always uncertain
– researchers must provide an estimate of
their certainty (or uncertainty)
– the goal is to reduce uncertainty
3. research methods must be made public—
both how one did one’s observations and
how one made one’s inferences
4. all research seeks the unobservable, but
to get to the unobservable, one must begin
with the observable
the act of research
• identify an area
• formulate a problem or question
• find out what is known, how well it is known, and
who knows it
• make a plan for finding it out
• observe (generate data)
• bring raw data (observations) “to the desk”
• construct a data record from raw data
• work on data record—make inferences (analyze/
• write up what one did and what one found out
• make the writing public
constructing a question or problem
• find an hypothesis (explanation) in literature
for which there has been little systematic
empirical study
• find an accepted explanation in the
literature you suspect is not warranted, or
has not been adequately confirmed
constructing a question or problem cont.
• find a controversy in the literature and
provide evidence for one side or the
other—or show controversy unfounded
• make the case that an important topic has
been overlooked in the literature and
contribute a systematic study
Kiewra: a slice of advice
• study a domain intensively
• 10 year rule
• pay yourself first
• have challenging and important goals
• kid test
• conduct systematic work with colleagues
• write clearly and with style
• Levin’s friend test
• embrace feedback
• find a candid colleague and venerate
that individual
• do not lose perspective
• what are we about
Krathwohl: ch 3
• journey: interesting and useful but leaves
out the human element
• sources of knowledge
• what are they in your area
• norms of knowledge production
• universal standards
• common ownership
• integrity in gathering & interpreting
• organized skepticism
important ideas
findings, claims*, knowledge
Dewey: “warranted assertability”
Cronbach: “uncertainty reduction”
parsimony (Occam’s razor)
Krathwohl: Ch 4
• the journalist’s questions:
– who, what, where, why, how, when
• the chain of reasoning
• only as strong as its weakest link
• links should be equally strong
• each link determined by link before it
• where links share load, strong link may
compensate for weaker one
important ideas
chain of reasoning
• discussion: tba
• RefWorks: www.library.uiuc.edu/refworks/
– similar to EndNote, but free
• AERA: www.aera.net, meetings & events
• lit review examples—list on website
housekeeping cont.
• next class:
– professional org membership report (all)
– professional org project plan (A & A-)
• 5-minute assignment
• test example on website
prof org project plan
AERA (CEC, APHA, etc) option 2
Sieber & Tolich ch 1
• challenges
protection from litigation
medical model
no appeals
limited view of research
• mission creep has engulfed researchers,
their ethics, and their research.
1. “a logical ethical framework to guide
investigators” needs to be updated to include
new and revise methodologies
2. IRBs should engage in planning for their
contribution to ethically responsible research
Sieber & Tolich ch 2
• vulnerability, risk, and benefit
– who is vulnerable
• Kipnis: cognitive, authority, deferential,
medical, allocational, infrastructural
• harm
– inconvenience, emotional/psychological,
social, physical, economic, legal
• can risk be avoided entirely?
• what is minimal risk?
– assessing risk (table 2.1)
• knowing where to look
• engaging wide spectrum of players
• what is benefit
– intermediate, ultimate (figure 2.1)
• without benefit, no risk permitted
writing: references: APA 193 ff.
journal article (journal paginated across year)
one author
• Walsh, D. J. (1989). Changes in kindergarten:
Why here and now? Early Childhood
Research Quarterly, 4, 377-391.
journal article (journal paginated across year)
two authors
• Sims, L. M., & Walsh, D. J. (2009). Lesson
Study with preservice teachers: Lessons
from lessons. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 25, 724-733. doi:xxx.xx/xx
journal article (journal paginated across
electronic version
• Lee, J-H., & Walsh, D. J. (2004). Quality in
early childhood programs: Reflections
from program evaluation practices.
American Journal of Evaluation, 25, 351373. doi: 10.1177/109821400402500306
journal article (paginated by issue)
• Walsh, D. J. (2005). They’re kids, aren’t
they? Culture, quality, and contemporary
preschool. International Journal of Early
Childhood Education, 11(2), 7-30.
journal article in press (make sure)
• Doe, J. J. (in press). Title. Journal Name.
authored book
• Becker, H. S. (1986). Writing for social
scientists: How to start and finish your
thesis, book, or article. Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago.
edited book
• Hatch, A. (Ed.). (1995). Qualitative
research in early childhood settings.
Westport, CT: Praeger.
book with author and publisher same
• American Psychological Association. (2010).
Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (6th ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.
chapter in edited book
• Graue, M. E., & Walsh, D. J. (1995).
Children in context: Interpreting the
here and now of children's lives. In A.
Hatch (Ed.), Qualitative research in early
childhood settings (pp. 135-154).
Westport, CT: Praeger.
chapter in an authored book
• Bruner, J. (1990). Folk psychology as an
instrument of culture. In Acts of
meaning (pp. 33-65). Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
paper presented at conference
• Lee, K. (2001, April). Not the united colors
of Benetton: Language, culture, and
peers. Paper presented at the meeting of
the American Educational Research
Association, Seattle, WA.
unpublished dissertation
• Chung, S. (1999). Unpacking child-
centeredness: A history of meanings
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, IL.
grad life
more top 10 tips
10. attend the university
9. get a good adviser
8. develop a good relationship with
your adviser
7. work ahead
6. schedule ahead
5. schedule in detail
4. work more efficiently, not more
3. rub shoulders with the giants
2. the habits you develop now will be
habits you carry through the rest
of your academic career
1. these are the best years of your
life—enjoy them
grad life
• except for football and men’s basketball,
all varsity sports event are free with
student ID
• visit the Krannert Art Museum
• on a hot night, go to the Custard Cup (on
Kirby, block west of Neil)
free & cheap this week
• under construction