EXAM I REVIEW Take out some scratch paper!

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Transcript EXAM I REVIEW Take out some scratch paper!

EXAM I REVIEW

Take out some scratch paper!

1). Conservationist who advocated protection of nature for both its beauty and usefulness; founder of the U.S. Forest Service A. Gifford Pinchot B. Aldo Leopold C. Henry David Thoreau D. John Muir E. John Ruskin

2). Which of the following is an assumption of neoclassical economics?

A. Resources are finite.

B. Growth is good.

C. Long-term effects are important.

D. All citizens deserve just and equal treatment.

E. External costs and benefits are valuable.

3). External costs include…..

A. Utilities B. Raw materials C. wages D. Worker’s compensation and insurance E. Environmental damage

4). Which of the following is a biotic factor?

A. Soil pH B. Leaf litter C. Humidity D. Energy E. Solar radiation

5). Which law best relates to energy loss within an ecosystem?

A. First Law of Thermodynamics B. Second Law of Thermodynamics C. Third Law of Thermodynamics D. Law of Conservation of Matter E. Law of Relativity

6). Which of the following organisms would occupy the lowest trophic level?

A. Golden crowned kinglet B. Snake C. Salamander D. Mouse E. Red-tailed hawk

7). Which stage of the hydrologic cycle is often the most direct cause of algal blooms?

A. Evaporation B. Precipitation C. Infiltration D. Transpiration E. Runoff

8). A scientist is observing a series of plants and measuring their growth with the addition of nutrients. She notices that the addition of nitrate has no effect on growth while the addition of phosphorus shows significant growth. What conclusion can she draw about the nutrients in relation to this plant?

A. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient.

B. Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient.

C. Phosphorus and nitrogen together are limiting nutrients.

D. Excess nitrogen is being stored by the plants.

E. Excess phosphorus is being stored by the plants.

9). Which of the following organisms carry out cellular respiration?

A. Plants B. Animals C. Bacteria D. Both B and C E. A, B and C

10). Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?

A. Tundra B. Boreal forest (taiga) C. Temperate grassland D. Chaparral E. Cold desert

11). Which type of natural selection is shown by this histogram?

A. Stabilizing selection B. Directional selection C. Disruptive selection D. Debilitating selection E. Robust selection

12.) What type of growth does this graph demonstrate?

A. Stabilizing B. Exponential C. Logistic D. r-selected E. K-selected

13.) Which best describes the population growth you would expect to see based on this diagram?

A. Rapidly increasing B. Slowly increasing C. Zero growth D. Slowly decreasing E. Impossible to tell

14.) In one year a population of 100 giraffes, nine giraffes die, 12 are born and two move away. What is the growth rate?

A. 10% B. 1% C. 0.1% D. -0.1% E. -1%

15.) How many hectograms are in one centigram?

A. 1000 B. 100 C. 0.01

D. 0.001

E. 0.0001

16.) If there are 1,250 kcal/m 2 in the producer level and 95 kcal/m 2 in the primary consumer level, what percent of the energy was transferred?

A. 7.6% B. 10.5% C. 13.2% D. 15.5% E. 25.0%

17.) The best way reduce starvation for a country that struggles to grow enough food to feed its people is to promote a A. Plant-based diet B. Meat-based diet C. Mixed plant and animal-based diet D. Protein-based diet E. Carbohydrate-based diet

18.) The immediate (most direct) cause of hypoxia in dead zones is A. Increased nutrient runoff B. Increased photosynthesis from algae C. Increased cellular respiration by bacteria D. Decreased cellular respiration due to fish kills E. Decreases in limiting nutrients

19.) Which process converts ammonia into nitrite and nitrate?

A. Nitrogen fixation B. Nitrification C. Denitrification D. Fossil fuel combustion E. Lightning

20.) The relationship between flowering plants and bees is best described as A. Herbivory B. Predation C. Parasitism D. Commensalism E. Mutualism

21.) The entire range of conditions where a species is capable of survival assuming no competitors are present is known as the A. Baseline habitat B. Theoretical habitat C. Basic niche D. Realized niche E. Fundamental niche

22.) Cattle on an open range may compact fragile soils while grazing. This can damage plant roots, leading to smaller plants, which may in turn cause cattle to graze more and work harder to obtain food. This is an example of A. A food web B. A positive feedback loop C. A negative feedback loop D. Dynamic equilibrium E. Amensalism

23.) Ecotones are the A. Sounds that animal communities make in ecosystems B. Transitional zones between ecosystems C. Interactive behaviors leading to communication D. Areas between territories of competing animals E. Studies of specific biomes by ecologists

24.) A small section of prairie grasses, over a year, produces enough biomass to feed insects, mice, rabbits, birds, antelope, and a host of decomposers. The amount of food potentially available to the herbivores is the A. Primary production B. Gross primary production C. Net primary production D. Gross secondary production E. Net secondary production

25.) The largest pools of carbon in the carbon cycle are A. Sedimentary rock and fossil fuels B. Plants and animals C. The atmosphere D. Hydrosphere E. Oceans