Transcript Chapter 5
Beginnings of an American Identity
Section 1 Early American Culture
Colonist Eliza Lucas Pickney moved to South Carolina from the West Indies. Her Father left and mother died ,so she was left in charge of the plantation. She grew Indigo and the plantation she ran became the largest in South Carolina.
British culture remained foundation of colonial societies Colonists adapted old ways to new world, The American Identity was born
Cheap farmland and abundant resources gave colonists a chance to prosper.
Land ownership gave colonists political rights White male could vote City dwellers could vote by paying a fee
America 1. Not tilted aristocracy 2.
Large middle class Huge underclass of slaves Poor colonists could rise to middle class
• 1. Household chores – Farm 2. Ran Inns or Business- Urban 3. Women could not own land without their husbands approval 4. Even money earned was owned by husband Men- 1. Outside Chores • Had 6-8 children in family
Boys age 13 – worked as apprentices: They worked on a skill or trade from an experienced craftsperson for 4 7 years. They could work for wages or start their own business.
Girls age 13- Sent away to other households to learn a special skill.
Colonies had a high rate of Literacy: Ability to read and write 85% of men Educated African Americans were rare. It was illegal to teach them to read.
Children were taught to read the Bible
Ben Franklin wrote Poor Richards Almanac They were very popular Contained Calendar Weather prediction Star chart Home remedies Jokes proverbs
Religious Revival Great Awakening (1730- 1740) : Christian Religious Revival . It offered hope that a person could break away from past and begin a spiritual relationship with God. Evangelicalism: spiritual renewal or rebirth. Enlightenment: A movement stressing human reason Both offered ways to change themselves and their world.
Traveling ministries preached that inner religious emotions were more important than outward religious behavior.
A preacher that offered hope that all could be saved.
Evangelism: influenced American Culture South: spiritual equality threatened social system Baptist: allowed slaves to preach and women to speak in church.
George Whitefield: A Preacher influenced by the Great Awakening Thousands of people would show up for his sermons Raised money for the house of orphans The Great Awakening: Led Americans in the belief of spiritual equality 1.
Encouraged colonists to challenge authority Question traditional religious practices.
Enlightenment: explored human reason and science as the path of knowledge A famous enlightenment figure was Ben Franklin: he conducted scientific experiments to discover the laws of nature. John Locke : Challenged the belief that the King had a God given right to rule He argued the people had the natural right of Life Liberty Property
Human beings can improve society and the world Colonists are starting to see British Government as a threat to their rights and freedoms
THE RIGHTS OF ENGLISHMEN England was one of the most advanced political democracy and was envied by the world.
Colonists were very protective of their rights “Rights of Englishmen” They shared a belief in legal and political principles and that helped to tie the colonies together.
English Rights – 1 st 1215 step towards guarantee these rights English nobels forced King John to sign the Magna Carta
Magna Carta: A charter of English political and civil liberties.
Property could not be seized by king Couldn’t be taxed unless agreed unless agreed by council (Prominent Men) Couldn’t be put on trial based on official’s word, without witnesses.
Punished by a jury of their peers.
By signing this the King agreed he was not above the law. He was to obey the law of the land.
England's law making body was the model for colonist government Parliament had two houses House of Commons (elected) House of Lords (not elected) Nobles, Judges, and priests House of Commons was similar to House of Burgesses in Virginia 1. imposed taxes 2. managed colonies Conflicts arose even more when King appointed Royal Governors
Relationships between assemblies and English government caused tension on both sides of the Atlantic Mass. People were ignoring the navigation acts King Charles II got mad and canceled their charter: Their right to self govern King John became king in 1685 – wanted to take more royal power. He grouped northern colonies into “The Dominion of New England” Appointed Governor – Edmund Andros 1. ended representatives 2. limited town meetings
James II 1. restricted English Rights 2. Punished Protestant Rebellions 3. dismissed Parliament Outraged by James II decisions Parliament offered the throne to daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange Change called “Glorious Revolution” They agreed to uphold the “English Bill of Rights”: a list of specific rights of English and Parliament Couldn’t cancel laws or oppose taxes- Free elections -- No Excessive Fines --- Frequent Meetings -- No cruel punishment
People could complain to King or Queen without punishment Freedom of Press 1735- John Peter Zenger- New York Weekly Journal Stood trial to criticizing New York governor It was illegal to criticize King in print Andrew Hamilton represented the right to speak the truth and the jury agreed Freedom of Press was an important right in America Heritage: tradition
Chief Pontiac- leader of the Ottawa- He lead raids against the British who took over French forts in Great Lakes region.
The conflict was known as Pontiacs Rebellion French and English powers in America led to war French – Ohio River Valley– Mississippi River Valley– Great Lakes Region, Louisiana founded by La Salle Ohio River Valley to Rocky Mountains- called New France Fur Traders created economic and military alliances between Europeans and Indians
9 year French and Indian War- feared losing rivers that were linked to Canada and Lousiana Washington asked French to leave area Fort Duquesne- now Pittsburg Fort necessity- Washington was attacked and retreated back to Virginia Huron Tribe- sided with the French- Great Lakes Albany Plan of Union- 1 st formal plan to unite the colonies It was rejected because colonies did not want to give up own affairs French and Indian attacked Genreal Braddock and 2,100 soldiers
William Pitt- determined to win war in the colonies Pitt sent hest Generals to America and borrowed the money to pay troops- controlled 6 French Forts – Including Fort Duquesne which was renamed Fort Pitt Quebec- general Wolfe tool troops up a cliff to capture Fort Quebec Battle of Quebec: Turning Point of the war and Montreal fell the next year. All Canada was in British hands
Spain made a pact to aid French but it was too late Treaty of Paris- Ended nearly all French control of North America- expanded England control
Pontiac’s Rebellion- attacked British Forts west of Appalachian Mountains Killing Native Americans – who had not attacked them Lenni Lenape- war leaders to talk and gave them blankets infected with small pox Proclamation of 1763- Forbade colonists from settling west of Appalachian Mountains French and Indian War gave 13 colonies first taste of unity when fighting a common enemy