Production and Operations Management: Manufacturing and

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Transcript Production and Operations Management: Manufacturing and

Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Chapter 5
Product Design & Process
1
Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Chapter 5
Product Design & Process SelectionManufacturing

Typical Phases of Product Design Development
– Concurrent Engineering

Designing for the Customer
– QFD





Design for Manufacturability
Types of Processes
Process Flow Structures
Process Flow Design
Global Product Design and Manufacturing
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Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Typical Phases of Product Design
Development

Concept Development

Product Planning

Product/Process Engineering

Pilot Production/Ramp-Up
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Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Concurrent Engineering
Defined

Concurrent engineering can be defined as
the simultaneous development of project
design functions, with open and interactive
communication existing among all team
members for the purposes of reducing time
to market, decreasing cost, and improving
quality and reliability.
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Operations Management
5
For Competitive Advantage
Designing for the Customer
House of Quality
Quality Function
Deployment
Ideal
Customer
Product
Value Analysis/
Value Engineering
Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Designing for the Customer:
Quality Function Deployment

Interfunctional teams from marketing, design
engineering, and manufacturing

Voice of the customer

House of Quality
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Designing for the Customer:
The House of Quality
Strong positive
X
Positive
X
X
Water resistance
*
Accoust. Trans.
Window
Energy needed
to open door
Check force on
level ground
Door seal
resistance
Energy needed
to close door
Customer
Requirements
Negative
Strong negative
X
X
X
Engineering
Characteristics
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Correlation:
Competitive evaluation
X = Us
A = Comp. A
B = Comp. B
(5 is best)
1
2
Easy to close
7
X
Stays open on a hill
5
X AB
Easy to open
3
Doesn’t leak in rain
3
No road noise
2
3
4
5
AB
XAB
A XB
X A
Importance weighting
10
6
6
9
2
3
Relationships:
A
X
BA
X
Reduce energy
to 7.5 ft/lb.
B
B
A
X
X
A
Maintain
current level
B
Maintain
current level
Technical evaluation
(5 is best)
5
4
3
2
1
Reduce force
to 9 lb.
Target values
Maintain
current level
Reduce energy
level to 7.5 ft/lb
Strong = 9
BXA
BA
X
Medium = 3
Small = 1
B
Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Designing for the Customer:
Value Analysis/Value Engineering
(VA/VE)

Achieve equivalent or better performance at
a lower cost while maintaining all functional
requirements defined by the customer.
– Does the item have any design features that are
not necessary?
– Can two or more parts be combined into one?
– How can we cut down the weight?
– Are there nonstandard parts that can be
eliminated?
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Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Design for Manufacturability

Traditional Approach
– “We design it, you build it” or “Over the wall”

Concurrent Engineering
– “Let’s work together simultaneously”
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Operations Management
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Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

Greatest improvements related to DFMA
arise from simplification of the product by
reducing the number of separate parts:
» 1. During the operation of the product, does the
part move relative to all other parts already
assembled?
» 2. Must the part be of a different material or be
isolated from other parts already assembled?
» 3. Must the part be separate from all other parts to
allow the disassembly of the product for
adjustment or maintenance?
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Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Types of Processes

Conversion

Fabrication

Assembly

Testing
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Operations Management
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Process Flow Structures

Job shop

Batch shop

Assembly Line

Continuous Flow
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Operations Management
Exhibit 5.10
Low
Volume,
One of a
Kind
I.
Job
Shop
II.
Batch
III.
Assembly
Line
IV.
Continuous
Flow
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For Competitive Advantage
Few
High
Multiple
Major
Volume,
Products, Products,
High
Low
Higher StandardVolume Volume
ization
Flexibility (High)
Unit Cost (High)
Commercial
Printer
French Restaurant
Heavy
Equipment
Coffee Shop
Automobile
Assembly
Burger King
Sugar
Refinery
Flexibility (Low)
Unit Cost (Low)
Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Virtual Factory
Defined
A virtual factory can be defined as a
manufacturing operation where activities are
carried out not in one central plant, but in
multiple locations by suppliers and partner
firms as part of a strategic alliance.
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Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Process Flow Design
Defined

A process flow design can be defined as a
mapping of the specific processes that raw
materials, parts, and subassemblies follow
as they move through a plant.

The most common tools to conduct a
process flow design include assembly
drawings, assembly charts, and operation
and route sheets.
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Operations Management
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For Competitive Advantage
From Exhibit 5.14
Example: Assembly Chart (Gozinto)
4
5
6
7
Lockring
Spacer, detent spring
SA-2
Rivets (2)
A-2
Spring-detent
A-5
Component/Assy Operation
Inspection
Operations Management
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For Competitive Advantage
Example: Process Flow Chart
Material
Received
from
Supplier
No,
Continue…
Inspect
Material for
Defects
Defects
found?
Yes
Return to
Supplier for
Credit
Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Global Product Design and
Manufacturing Strategies

Joint Ventures

Global Product Design Strategy
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Operations Management
For Competitive Advantage
Measuring Product Development
Performance

Time-to-market

Productivity

Quality
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