The War of 1812

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Transcript The War of 1812

Essential Question:
–What were the significant
causes & effects of the
War of 1812?
Take notes on Madison video
The Road to War:
Renewed Conflict with
England & France
The Embargo of 1807
 When England & France resumed
war in 1803 & violated U.S.
neutrality, Jefferson approved the
unpopular Embargo of 1807
 To enforce the embargo, Jefferson
contradicted his principles of
individual liberty & weak gov’t:
– He mobilized the military to
enforce the blockade
– He declared regions of NY (near
Canada) in a state of insurrection
“NeverThe
did aEmbargo
prisoner, released
of 1807from his
chains,
feel
such
relief
as
I
shall
on
For
15
months
the
embargo
shaking off the shackles of power.”—TJ
proved ineffective; Congress
repealed the embargo in 1809
The
embargo
gained
no
political
Jefferson’s decision to not run for
concessions from France or Britain
a third term meant that these
But
it
produced
economic
hardship,
problems
fell
to
his
hand-picked
smuggling, & political dissent in America
successor, James Madison
Congress repealed the embargo just
In 1808,
was left
elected
3 daysMadison
after Jefferson
office
president & the Republicans
maintained control of the gov’t
The Road to the War of 1812
…but England
eagerly
Madison
The focus
of Madison’s
presidency
continued
to
seize
reopened
trade
was foreign policy:U.S. ships
with England
– In 1809, the Non-Intercourse Act
promised
the U.S.
resume
France agreed
to endwould
all trade
restrictions
(but never&stopped
trade
with England
France
seizing
ships
or
impressing
sailors)
once U.S. neutrality is respected
– In 1810, Congress replaced this
with Macon’s Bill #2 offering
exclusive trade to whichever
nation 1st honored U.S. neutrality
Which region
would
have
supported
athe
Patriotism
surged
as
War
Hawks
claimed
Madison
eventually
gave
in
&
Americans
in
the
West
&
declaration
of war
the most?
War of 1812
the “Second
American
Revolution”
South
wanted
war to gain
asked
Congress
for a declaration
Canada & Spanish
of war Florida
in June 1812
NE Federalists thought war
withMost
Britain
as for
a mistake:
calls
war centered on British
they feared
the U.S.
could
interference
with
U.S. trade rights.
not defeat
a war Rights” was a
“FreeEngland
Trade &&Sailors'
would bankruptpopular
the country
battle cry
By 1810, War Hawks in Congress, led by
Henry Clay (KY) & John C. Calhoun (SC),
demanded war with England
The War of 1812
War
The U.S. did
not of
fare1812
well against
the better-trained
British
troops the
Despite
increased
patriotism,
waswas
unprepared
war:
The U.S.
U.S. navy
a little morefor
successful
but only
because the
bulk of to
British
– Congress
refused
raisenavy
taxes
was still fighting Napoleon in Europe
– The
army was small & state
militias were inadequate
– The government was incapable
of directing a full-scale war
The U.S. goal for the war was to
attack British Canada & force
England to respect U.S. rights
The American army under Andrew Jackson
defeated the British at New Orleans (after a
peace treaty was drawn up ending the war)
The War
of 1812
In 1814,
the British
British
were
turned
back
at
Plattsburg
on Lake
The British attacked
the
undefended
took
the
offensive
in
a
Champlain
&
gave
up
their
Canadian
offensive
Chesapeake & burned Washington, DC
3-pronged attack
& laid siege to Baltimore
“Battle of New Orleans”—Johnny Horton (1959)
In 1814 we took a little trip
Along with Colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississip.
We took a little bacon and we took a little beans
And we caught the bloody British in the town of New Orleans.
[Chorus:]
We fired our guns and the British kept a'comin.
There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago.
We fired once more and they began to runnin' on
Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.
We looked down the river and we see'd the British come.
And there must have been a hundred of'em beatin' on the drum.
They stepped so high and they made the bugles ring.
We stood by our cotton bales and didn't say a thing.
[Chorus]
Old Hickory said we could take 'em by surprise
If we didn't fire our muskets 'til we looked 'em in the eye
We held our fire 'til we see'd their faces well.
Then we opened up with squirrel guns and really gave 'em ... well
Hartford Convention
The War of 1812
In order to reduce southern
is still
going
on!!
Federalists opposed
the
war
by
control of Congress
not paying taxes or sending troops
In order to break the Virginia
In 1814, Federalists
met
at
the
presidential dynasty
Hartford Convention to discuss
altering the U.S. Constitution to:
– restrict Congress’ war powers
– supported a one-term president
– abolish the three-fifths clause
They discussed seceding from the
USA if they did not get their way
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent ended the war,
but did not address U.S. neutrality
Effects
the War
ofto1812:
Spainofceded
Florida
the USA
– Ended all Indian-British
alliances in western lands
– Scared Spain into signing the
Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819
– The lack of Federalist loyalty
was the fatal blow to the party
Discussion Questions
 To what extent was the War of 1812
a “second American Revolution”?
 Which treaty was more significant in
U.S. history: Jay’s Treaty (1794) OR
the Treaty of Ghent (1814)? Explain
 Which president was more
successful: John Adams or James
Madison? Explain.