Adult and Elderly Nutrition

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Transcript Adult and Elderly Nutrition

Nutrition through the
Life Cycle
Adult and Elderly
Definition of Adulthood
With good luck, good genes, and good
habits, adulthood covers a life span of
roughly 60 years.
• Early Adulthood – by the age of 20, adults
have generally stopped growing
• Midlife – forties and fifties – body composition
shifts, hormones shift, and activity decreases
• Old Age – after sixty – consequences of
earlier lifestyle choices
Physiological Changes
of Adulthood
• Growth and maturation are complete by
early adulthood
• Nutritional emphasis turns to
maintaining physical status, continuing
to build strength, and avoiding excess
weight gain
• Differences between:
• Males
• Females
Energy Needs
• Harris-Benedict Equation
• Mifflin-St.Jeor Equation
Dietary Recommendations
• Governmental and private groups make food
and nutrition recommendations according to
their missions and goals
– Advocating for reduction of specific disease risk
(i.e. American Heart Association)
– Ensuring adequate population intake specific
nutrients (i.e. FDA – fortification of grain products)
– Offering guidance on what and how much to eat.
(i.e. Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for
Weight Change
• 3500 calories to gain or lose 1 pound of
body weight.
• To gain or lose 1 pound / week add or
subtract 500 calories / day
• These calories can be a combination of
intake and activity
Healthy People 2010
• Increase the number of individuals who are:
At a healthy weight
Eat at least two servings of fruit/day
Eat at least three servings of vegetables/d
Eat at least six servings of grain products/ d (with ½ of those
as whole grains)
– Eat less than 10% calories from saturated fat
– Eat no more than 30 % of calories from fat
Meet dietary recommendation for calcium
Eat 2400 mg or less of sodium daily
Increase food security and in doing decrease hunger
Increase number physician visits as needed
Water needs
• 1 ml water per calorie of food ingested
• 2000 calorie diet = 2000 ml of water
• Eight 8 ounce glasses of water/day
Are you receiving enough water?
– urine colorless or pale yellow
Physical Activity
• 30 minutes a day
• Intermittent physical activity also
increases caloric expenditure
Definition of Elderly
• 65-74 years is “young old”
• 75-84 years is “aged”
• 85 and older is “oldest old”
Diseases and disabilities are not
inevitable consequences of ageing
• The Center for Disease Control and
Prevention suggest that longevity
depends on:
– 19% genetics
– 10% access to health care
– 20% environmental factors
– 51% lifestyle factors
Physiological Changes
Body composition changes
Weight gain
Taste and smell
Chewing and swallowing
Appetite and thirst
Food Safety
• Compromised immune systems
• Under reported due to individuals
thinking it is the “flu”
• Causes may be:
– Improper temperatures
– Poor hygiene
– Contaminated equipment
– Inadequate cooking time
Physical Activity
• On average older adults are less active
• An evaluation by a physician is needed
• For general health exercise 30 minutes
an day on most days
• Drink plenty of water
• Do warm up and cool down exercises
Physical Activity
• Encouraging physical activity will help
older adults by
– Improving strength
– Maintaining muscle mass
– Improving activities of daily living
– Feeling better both mentally and
physically, which may influence changes in
dietary habits.
Community Food
and Nutrition Programs
• Governmental programs:
– USDA’s Food Stamp program
– Adult Day Services food programs
– Nutritional Assistance Programs for
– Meals-on-Wheels
– Senior Nutrition program of the Older
Americans Act
Community Food
and Nutrition Programs
• Non governmental home health
programs provide food and nutrition
– Nursing
– Home health aides
"To eat is a necessity,
but to eat intelligently is
an art."
- La Rochefoucauld
This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California
Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California. These institutions
are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides
nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a
better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483.