Reproductive System - Dr. Par Mohammadian

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Transcript Reproductive System - Dr. Par Mohammadian

PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Barbara Heard,
Atlantic Cape Community
College
CHAPTER
27
The
Reproductive
System:
Modified by Dr. Par
Mohammadian
© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reproductive System
• Primary sex organs (gonads) - testes
and ovaries
– Produce gametes (sex cells ) – sperm & ova
– Secrete steroid sex hormones
• Androgens (males)
• Estrogens and progesterone (females)
• Accessory reproductive organs - ducts,
glands, and external genitalia
Reproductive System
• Sex hormones play roles in
– Development and function of reproductive
organs
– Sexual behavior and drives
– Growth and development of many other
organs and tissues
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 27.4A
Male Reproductive System
Urinary bladder
(excretory
system)
Seminal
vesicle
(behind
bladder)
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral
gland
Urethra
Erectile tissue
of penis
Vas deferens
Scrotum
Epididymis
Testis
Glans of
penis
Male Reproductive System
• Testes (within scrotum) produce sperm
• Sperm delivered to exterior through system
of ducts
– Epididymis  ductus deferens  ejaculatory
duct  urethra
• Accessory sex glands
– Seminal glands
– Prostate
– Bulbo-urethral glands
– Empty secretions into ducts during ejaculation
Figure 27.1 Reproductive organs of the male, sagittal view.
Ureter
Peritoneum
Seminal gland
(vesicle)
Ampulla of
ductus deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Rectum
Prostate
Bulbo-urethral gland
Anus
Bulb of penis
Ductus (vas) deferens
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Epididymis
Testis
Scrotum
Urinary bladder
Prostatic
urethra
Pubis
Intermediate
part of the
urethra
Urogenital
diaphragm
Corpus
cavernosum
Corpus
spongiosum
Spongy
urethra
Glans penis
Prepuce
(foreskin)
External
urethral orifice
The Scrotum
• Sac of skin and superficial fascia
– Hangs outside abdominopelvic cavity
– Contains paired testes
• 3C lower than core body temperature
• Lower temperature necessary for sperm production
• Temperature kept constant by two sets of
muscles: Dartos muscle & Cremaster
muscles
Figure 27.2 Relationships of the testis to the scrotum and spermatic cord.
Urinary bladder
Superficial inguinal ring
(end of inguinal canal)
Spermatic cord
Penis
Septum of scrotum
Cremaster muscle
External spermatic
fascia
Superficial fascia
containing dartos
Scrotum muscle
Skin
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Testicular artery
Ductus (vas)
deferens
Autonomic
nerve fibers
Pampiniform
venous plexus
Epididymis
Tunica vaginalis
(from peritoneum)
Tunica albuginea
of testis
Internal spermatic
fascia
The Testes
• Each surrounded by two tunics
– Tunica vaginalis – outer layer derived from
peritoneum
– Tunica albuginea – inner layer; fibrous
capsule
• Septa divide testis into ~250 lobules, each
containing 1–4 seminiferous tubules site of sperm production; Produce
androgens, e.g., testosterone
– Secrete it into interstitial flui
Figure 27.3a Structure of the testis.
Spermatic cord
Blood vessels
and nerves
Ductus (vas)
deferens
Head of epididymis
Testis
Efferent ductule
Seminiferous
tubule
Rete testis
Lobule
Septum
Tunica albuginea
Straight tubule
Body of epididymis
Duct of epididymis
Tunica vaginalis
Cavity of
tunica vaginalis
Tail of epididymis
•
Sperm conveyed from Seminiferous tubules Straight tubule Rete testis Efferent
ductules Epididymis
Figure 27.3b Structure of the testis.
Spermatic cord
Ductus deferens
Epididymis
Testis
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Penis
• External genitalia - scrotum and penis
• Penis - male copulatory organ
• Penis consists of
– Root and shaft that ends in glans penis
– Prepuce, or foreskin—cuff of loose skin covering
glans
•
•
Circumcision: Surgical removal of foreskin
60% newborn boys in US circumcised
– 15% in other parts of world
– Some claim medically unnecessary
– Studies show
• 60% reduction in HIV risk
• Reduced risk for other reproductive system infections
The Penis: Internally
Ureter
Urinary bladder
•
Spongy urethra and three
cylindrical bodies of erectile
tissue (spongy network of
connective tissue and smooth
muscle with vascular spaces)
– Corpus spongiosum surrounds urethra and
expands to form glans and
bulb
– Corpora cavernosa paired dorsal erectile bodies
•
Erection - erectile tissue fills
with blood, causing penis to
enlarge and become rigid
Ampulla of ductus deferens
Seminal gland
Prostate
Prostatic urethra
Ejaculatory duct
Orifices of prostatic
ducts
Intermediate part
of the urethra
(membranous urethra)
Urogenital diaphragm
Root of penis
Crus of penis
Bulbo-urethral gland and duct
Bulb of penis
Bulbo-urethral duct opening
Ductus deferens
Corpora cavernosa
Epididymis
Body (shaft)
of penis
Corpus spongiosum
Testis
Section of (b)
Spongy urethra
Glans penis
Prepuce (foreskin)
External urethral orifice
Dorsal vessels
and nerves
Corpora cavernosa
Urethra
Skin
Tunica albuginea of
erectile bodies
Deep arteries
Corpus spongiosum
The Male Duct System
• Ducts carry sperm from testes to body
exterior
– Epididymis
– Ductus deferens
– Ejaculatory duct
– Urethra
Vasectomy!
The Male Accessory Glands
•
•
•
•
Paired seminal glands (seminal vesicles)
Paired bulbo-urethral glands
Prostate
Produce bulk of semen
– Remainder - sperm from testes
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Semen
• Milky-white mixture of sperm and accessory
gland secretions
– 2–5 ml semen ejaculated, contains 20–150
million sperm/ml
• Contains fructose for ATP production;
protects and activates sperm; facilitates
sperm movement
• Alkaline  neutralizes acidity of male urethra
and female vagina  enhanced motility
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Female Reproductive Anatomy
• Internal genitalia – in pelvic cavity
– Ovaries
– Uterine tubes
– Uterus
– Vagina
• External genitalia
– External sex organs
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 27.3A
Female Reproductive system
Ovaries
Oviduct
Follicles
Corpus luteum
Uterus
Wall of uterus
Endometrium
(lining of uterus)
Vagina
Cervix
(“neck” of uterus)
Figure 27.12 Internal organs of the female reproductive system, midsagittal section.
Peritoneum
Uterosacral
ligament
Perimetrium
Rectouterine
pouch
Rectum
Posterior fornix
Cervix
Anterior fornix
Vagina
Anus
Urogenital diaphragm
Greater vestibular
gland
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Suspensory
ligament
of ovary
Infundibulum
Uterine tube
Ovary
Fimbriae
Uterus
Round ligament
Vesicouterine
pouch
Urinary bladder
Pubic symphysis
Mons pubis
Urethra
Clitoris
External urethral
orifice
Hymen
Labium minus
Labium majus
Figure 27.14 Internal reproductive organs of a female, posterior view.
Suspensory
ligament of ovary
Ovarian
blood
vessels
Broad ligament
• Mesosalpinx
• Mesovarium
• Mesometrium
Uterine (fallopian) tube
Ovarian
ligament
Body of uterus
Ureter
Uterine blood vessels
Isthmus
Uterosacral ligament
Cardinal (lateral cervical)
ligament
Lateral fornix
Cervix
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fundus
Lumen (cavity)
of uterus
of uterus
Ovary
Uterine tube
• Ampulla
• Isthmus
• Infundibulum
• Fimbriae
Round ligament of uterus
Wall of uterus
• Endometrium
• Myometrium
• Perimetrium
• Internal os
• Cervical canal
• External os
Vagina
Uterine Wall
• Three layers
– Perimetrium - serous layer (visceral
peritoneum)
– Myometrium - interlacing layers of smooth
muscle
– Endometrium - mucosal lining
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Uterine Vascular Supply
• Uterine arteries arise from internal iliacs;
branch into
• Arcuate arteries in myometrium; branch into
• Radial arteries in endometrium; branch into
• Straight arteries  stratum basalis
• Spiral arteries  stratum functionalis
– Degenerate and regenerate; spasms  shedding
of functionalis layer during menstruation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 27.15b The endometrium and its blood supply.
Lumen of uterus
Epithelium
Capillaries
Uterine glands
Venous sinusoids
Lamina propria of
connective tissue
Spiral (coiled)
artery
Straight artery
Endometrial vein
Radial artery
Smooth muscle
fibers
Arcuate artery
Uterine artery
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.