Chapter 4 Science Notes

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Transcript Chapter 4 Science Notes

Ecosystems and Biomes
Lesson 1 Cycles in Ecosystem
 Water cycle- continuous movement of water between
Earth’s surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas
to liquid
Evaporation- is the changing of a liquid into a gas
condensation-changing of a gas into a liquid
Precipitation- is any form of water that falls from the
atmosphere and reaches the ground, such as rain,
sleet, snow, or hail
Runoff- precipitation that flows across the land’s
surface and is not absorbed will flow into rivers, lakes,
and streams
Water Cycle
Lesson 1 Continued
Carbon cycle-the continuous exchange of carbon among
livings things
Nitrogen cycle- the continuous trapping of nitrogen gas into
compounds into soil and its return to the air
Lesson 2 Changes in Ecosystems
 Extinct species-when the last member of a species dies
 Endangered species- when a species is in danger of
becoming extinct
 Threatened species-species with low numbers that could
become endangered
Quagga: half zebra, half horse
(extinct since 1883)
Thylacine: the Tasmanian Tiger
(extinct since 1936)
Tyrannosaurus Rex
(extinct 65 million years ago)
Continued Lesson 2
 Pioneer community- along with microorganisms, the
pioneer species make up this community. The first living
community in an otherwise lifeless area ( for examplelichens and mosses)
 Climax community- is the final stage of succession (trees)
 Primary Succession- a community where few, if any, living
things exist, or where earlier communities were wiped out
Pioneer community
Climax Community
Lesson 2 continued…
 Secondary succession- is the beginning of a new
community where a community had already
Lesson 3: 6 major land biomes
Tropical Rain Forest
Biome- is one of Earth’s major land
ecosystems with its own characteristic
animals, plants, soil, and climate
Deciduous Forest
Global Biomes
Lesson 3: Biomes continued…
 Desert- a sandy, rocky biome, with little
precipitation and little plant life, the main
characteristic of a desert is lack of water
*Desert animals: kangaroos rats, lizards, and other reptiles
 Tundra- a large treeless biome where the ground
is frozen all year
*Tundra animals: caribou, polar bears, musk ox, arctic hares, and foxes
Arctic hare
Lesson 3 continued…
 Taiga- a cool forest biome of conifers found in the
northern regions
*taiga animals: snowshoe rabbit and wolverines
 Grassland-a biome where grasses, not trees, are
the main plant life, prairies are one kind of
grassland. The African grassland is called the
*grassland animals: insects, toads, worms, mice, and prairie dogs
Prairie dogs
Lesson 3 Continued…
 Rain forest- a hot, humid biome near the equator, with
heavy rainfall and a wide variety of life
• Rainforest animals- insects, frogs, monkeys, bats, snakes
• Deciduous Forest- a forest biome with four distinct
seasons and deciduous tress
• Deciduous animals- birds, squirrels, rabbits, raccoons, skunks, owls
Lesson 4: Water Ecosystems
 Organisms in the water are divided into three main categories;
plankton, nekton, and benthos
 nekton-an organisms that live in the water, nekton is the second
group which includes the larger, active swimmers in a body of
water. Fish, turtles, and whales are nekton.
Lesson 4 continued…
 bathyal zone: home to large consumers like sharks and
 abyssal zone: dark and cold because the sunlight is
completely blocked
Lesson 4 continued
Ocean Ecosystem Zones:
 intertidal zone: shallowest part of the ocean
 neritic zone: zone after intertidal-algae and kelp
grow here
Lesson 4 continued…
 estuary- the boundary where the fresh water feeds
into the salt water