Knowledge Acquisition - An Introduction

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Transcript Knowledge Acquisition - An Introduction

"To conceive of knowledge as a collection of
information seems to rob the concept of all of its
life... Knowledge resides in the user and not in
the collection. It is how the user reacts to a
collection of information that matters." –
Churchman
A Starting Premise
Knowledge is Power
Many companies are beginning to realize
that the knowledge of their employees is
the most valuable asset.
PEOPLE ARE CRUCIAL
…..
The exclusive source of knowledge for organisations
is people.
Individual knowledge is the starting point for
organisational knowledge.
The knowledge pool of each individual cannot be
replicated
Only people can spread knowledge resources across
the company
It is only people who can convert knowledge into
efficient action.
Company Knowledge
Resides in…
Documents
Explicit
Potential
Knowledge
Tacit
Modes of Knowledge Generation
•
Acquisition
•
Dedicated Resources
•
Fusion
•
Adaptation
•
Knowledge Networking
Acquisition
Direct and Effective way --- acquire knowledge
•Buy the Knowledge
•Buy an organization
•Hire individuals who have Knowledge.
Companies buy other companies for various reasons:
• to generate additional revenue,
• to achieve a strategic size or product mix,
• to get access to new markets
• to gain the skills of a senior management team
Acquisition
Acquirement other companies for knowledge.
Companies pay premium for adding new knowledge to their
knowledge stock.
IBM's 1995 purchase of Lotus.
IBM paid $3.5 billion, 14 times Lotus's book valuation of
$250 million.
The $3.25 billion premium IBM paid represents its appraisal of
Lotus's unique knowledge of Notes and other collaborative
software applications.
The minds that invented Lotus Notes are more
valuable than the software itself.
Acquisition
British Petroleum gives a
Thief of the Year Award
to the person who has "stolen" the best ideas in application
development.
The company recognizes that, when it comes to organizational
knowledge,
Originality is less important than Usefulness
Acquisition
.
Texas Instruments has created a
Not Invented Here, but I Did It Anyway Award
for borrowing a practice from either inside or outside the company.
The Spanish proverb
"Well stolen is half-done"
sums up this idea succinctly.
The knowledge-focused firm needs to have appropriate knowledge
available when and where it can be applied, not to generate new
ideas for their own sake.
Acquisition
Leasing outside knowledge
Company’s university Research Funding
Hoechst --- supports research
Department of Molecular Biology at Massachusetts
General Hospital in hopes that it will lead to the
development of profitable new drugs.
R&D efforts are always speculative
Acquisition
Renting knowledge really means renting a
knowledge source.
Hiring a consultant for a project is an obvious example.
Knowledge source is temporary
High-level consultants are expensive
For maximum Knowledge transfer. Squeeze as much
knowledge
Dedicated Resources
Knowledge creators and users may not even speak the
same language.
Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center ---
mid-1970s.
Knowledge workers at Xerox PARC invented key elements of
graphical interface computer
The mouse, graphical icons and menus.
The Management were not close enough to the research to
evaluate the newly created knowledge.
Steve Jobs--- Apple computers built Macintosh.
A brief tour of Xerox PARC was sufficient to gather the fruits of
research funded for years by Xerox.
Fusion
Matsushita first automatic breadmaking machine --- example of
diversity
Matsushita combined three product divisions with different
cultures rice cookers, toasters and coffeemakers, and food
processors
The new product Combined the
First group computer-control expertise
Second group induction heater technology
Third group knowledge of rotating motors.
Knowledge management principles – help fusion
•Foster awareness-value of knowledge
•Identify key knowledge workers
•Emphasize the creative potential
•Make the need for knowledge creation
Encourage, reward , direct
•Introduce measures and milestones of success
Adaptation
Adapt or die is our fate; so We adapt and advance
Knowledge generation drivers
• New products from competitors
• New technologies
• Social and economic changes
Success is often the enemy of innovation; it has been
called the winner's curse.
Networks
Knowledge generation by informal, self-organizing networks
within organizations .
Employees interact
•
in person
• on the telephone
•
and via e-mail
•
and groupware to share expertise and solve problems together.
Difficult to codify --- adds to the knowledge of the entire
company.
Processes Involved in Knowledge Management :
Identification
Mapping
Capturing
Storing
Applying
Acquiring
Sharing
Creating
RPS
TYPICAL INFORMATION SHARING
•NR - Darpan , TS Feedback
•ER- Anubhav, Tech 2K.Com
•WR- Reaching Out, Technical Share
•SR- SR News, TS Tidings
•TSHQ- Feedback Journal , New Horizons ,
Annual Performance Report on Thermal
& Nuclear Sets
•PS:MSX- Power Sector Operations Overview
booklet, PRAYAS, POWER MAP
RPS
•What do we do if knowledgeable
people suddenly leave ? How can we
ensure that what one department or
division learns is widely shared
throughout the company?
Power Sector Executives Knowledge
Pool
No. of Executives
: 1585
Total BHEL Experience : 33000 years
Average Experience in BHEL : 20.8 years
RPS
Jan’2002
Total BHEL Experience - Power Sector Executives
9655
7301
Years
6787
5370
2436
32
20-25
523
805
25-30
30-35
E1,E2
E3
35-40
E4
40-45
E5
45-50
50-55
55-60
E6,E6A,E7 GM,ED GM,ED
Age Group(Yrs.)
RPS
Enterprise Knowledge Management
Manual
Product Data Management
Document Management
Specification
Turbine
Customer Order
Performance
Data
Regulation
Change
Request
Archive
Note
Publication
Rotor
Assembly
Casing
Instruction
Drawing
Image
Drawing
Drawing
Bottom
Case
Top
Case
Rotor
Forging
LP Rotor
Model
Rotor Option A
Holding
Bolts
Bottom
Cover
Rotor
Disk
CAD/CAM/CAE
Data Management
Part Families
Component Management
Blade
Rev A
Blade
Rev B
Blade
Rev C
Rotor Option B
Rotor Option C
Configuration Management
Creation Of Knowledge Clip Board
( MOU Project ) of Site Related Problems
Start date : 15-06-2004
Completion date : Jan-2005
Project cost : 72.5 lakhs
PROJECT OBJECTIVES
Empowering BHEL Engineers with a
Centralised Database
Containing Problems faced during
Erection, Commissioning , Operation & Servicing,
their Analysis & Resolutions
for BHEL Commissioned Projects
to enable them to take timely technical decisions in
trouble shooting the defects
Creation of Repository of site related
technical information through
Prompt accessibility & retrieval of information for
quick and reliable trouble shooting
Capabilities building to trouble shoot problems of
older technology
Development of more number of trouble shooters
Considering the wide range of products and number
of collaborations for each product , it is necessary to
facilitate our business sectors with information to
take timely corrective actions and valid decisions
Project Goals
Generating additional business in the areas of SAS and
R&M
Availability of important technical data on a centralised
basis
Fast and easy archiving and retrieval of data
Cost reduction in operations
Maintaining capabilities in servicing / trouble shooting/
RLA & R &M of older machines needing attention to avoid
the situation where expertise is depleting
High value services to customers
Improved customer satisfaction
Anticipated Benefits
Improved speed of Execution of Contracts
Less dependency of Manufacturing units
Saving time/ work due to reduced traveling
More value addition per Employee by Regions /Power
sector
Renovation and Modernisation business
Marketing (PS & IS )
Quicker & reliable problem analysis & solutions
associated with high value services
Repository of Information Generated and Digitised
A.. Feed Back Articles – Site related Since Year 1992-93
B. Let Us Know- articles describing state of art technology
C. Commissioning Procedures
1.Boiler & Auxiliaries & its Systems
2.Turbine & Auxiliaries & its Systems
3.Generator & its Auxiliaries
4.Cooling Water System
5. Other Commissioning Systems
Present status
Categorisation of Feed back articles – Product wise
Generation of Key words – for Search Engine
Procurement of Server, LapTops, Digital Cameras ,
Scanners and Application software ( Oracle 91)
Scope for further work
a. Extended to all 120 / 210 /200/250/500 MW
BHEL Thermal Sets
b. Gas Turbines/ CCPPS
It is not
“Knowledge is Power
but
Knowledge sharing is Power”
RPS
Thank You All