Transcript Greece part 1 - Kenston Local Schools
Foundation of European civilization.- copied by almost everyone.
Two parts to Ancient Greek history Hellenic 800 bc- 338 bc Hellenistic 338 bc to 147 bc
Intrinsic means “Core” or “Central” the ideas at the heart of society For Greece: creativity and individuality Experimentation and invention (art, literature, science, government, philosophy)
Peninsula between Aegean and Ionian Sea Land Rocky- sea best for travel (great sailors) Landscape encouraged development of small city states (not one big gov’t)
People have lived in Greece since the stone age.
Permanent settlements began around 2000 bc. (Bronze Age) Still learning about first peoples
Minoans- Oldest Greek Civilization- began 2000 bc. On Island of Crete. Named for legend of King Minos and the Minotaur. What do we know? Wealthy- Built large palaces. Peaceful-few weapons. Culture destroyed around 1400 bc- don’t know how Mycenaeans First civilization on Greek mainland-1600 bc What do we know? Built fortified cities much more aggressive. Also disappeared w/ no certain cause- around 1100 bc 1100- 800 bc “dark ages” of Greek history- a time of chaos and confusion
The basic unit of Greek civilization.
Started around 800bc as a fortress- grew to include town and surrounding countryside The idea is a “city state”- but there is more to it. It is a community- all people are connected to each other.
Defined by Geography Citizens Politics Economics
Not very large (even for ancient world) you are supposed to know people and your place- and understand that polis is the most important thing in life Same (0r similar) Language Religion (but each focus on different gods)
Different governments Different $$- and focus of the economy Different patron god/goddess Different calendars Poleis were often competitive: both peacefully (Olympics) or violently (war)
The variety shows creativity. In all types citizens have rights/duties that are clearly understood.
Monarchy: “rule of one”, one person makes decisions Oligarchy: “rule of few”, small group makes decisions Democracy: “rule of many”, large group makes decisions (shows faith in citizens) Tyranny: a government that gets its power illegally. Not necessarily bad.
Duty of all citizens to protect the polis. (Fighting together increases feeling of connection) Hoplite: Greek citizen soldier. Had to have Helmet Shield Weapon Fought in Phalanx- a close formation of soldiers working together as a shield wall
Before 800 bc An idealized time when the gods walked the earth. (“once upon a time”….) the age of myths- full of heroes and miracles Told as EPIC (storytelling) poems to teach moral lessons Each polis had own local legends and heroes- all Greeks could claim “legendary” ancestors
No sacred work to pass on moral code Pray when you need something- give offerings No afterlife- everyone goes to the underworld Three main purposes Explain nature/catastrophe Explain strong emotion Explain good/bad luck
See Chart Lived on Mount Olympus- but could come to earth. Jealous and easily offended.
Several “sets” Olympians were main batch (Zeus etc….) children of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. There were also many “demigods” (Heracles etc…) and creatures with special powers in nature (fauns nymphs)
Myths- traditional stories of the gods- no known authors. Entertainment as well as religion- give explanation for how the world came to be- warnings about improper behavior. Two main concerns TYCHE (Fate) and HUBRIS (pride) Temple- Specific for each god/goddess Largest in the polis would be for patron- though most gods would have temples. Give offering in return for a favour.
Oracle- a place to talk to the gods- and get an answer. Most famous was the oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
Iliad and Odyssey
Epic (storytelling) poems written by HOMER in the dark ages (no proof he existed). THE classics of Greek literature- tell us a LOT about what Greeks valued in society.
Iliad- story of the 10 year Trojan war 10 year Journey of Odysseus Odyssey Stories are about love/honor/heroic behavior- set the standard for the Greek ideal. No matter how great you are you will be tested, and the gods are not impartial or fair. You can try- buy there is no way to avoid your fate.
Daily Life in Ancient Greece Home Life
Houses built around a courtyard for privacy.
Dining room main “social” area- women’s rooms separate Food was mostly grains and cheeses- wine was main drink (meat for special events) Olive oil used for cooking and preserving food (no fridge)
Marriages were arranged- large families were encouraged (exposure for unwanted children) take care of older generations Husbands and wives were not equal- husband in charge – could dictate anything Each encouraged to have own friends- friends were for talking- not spouses.
No family recreation
Greece first civilization to make education a priority- it made people better citizens Only boys could get formal education Pedagogue- slave responsible for early education- you went to “school” only for advanced learning Main subjects were: Philosophy, Ethics and Rhetoric
Trade was the backbone of the economy. Greeks were great sailors- easy to travel to distant lands Olive oil, wine and pottery were most prized Greek trade goods Land hard to farm (and in short supply) so Poleis founded colonies around the Mediterranean. Increased contacts with other civilizations