LLP Seeds and Seedlings

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Transcript LLP Seeds and Seedlings

Longleaf Pine Seeds and
SRS-4158 TAV Synthesis
September 11, 2012 - Atlanta
Topics defined
● Longleaf pine seeds
 Longleaf pine seedlings
 Longleaf pine plantation
Longleaf Pine Seeds
1. Seed production OK for natural regeneration
1000 cones/acre/4-5 years
35 seeds/cone in average year
65 cones/year/tree (15-19” dbh)
15 cones/year/tree (10-13” dbh)
2. Artificial regeneration ???
good crop year: > 30 cones/tree (> 9” dbh)
current planted LLP (0-10 year age): 630,000 acres
450 stocking, 95% germ, 4700 seeds/lb=63,500 pounds/10 years
next 3 years: projected net increase 308,000 acres
31,000 pounds/3 years
next 15 years: projected net increase 1.65 m acres
166,000 pounds/15 years or 11,000 pounds /year
Seedling Nursery Production ???
Longleaf Pine Seeds
● Seed Production
o Increase cone/seed production in seed orchards
or seed production areas on National Forests
o Monitor range-wide cone/seed production to
better predict cone crops (10 locations/6 states for 50
o Seed production sporadic
o Environmental and genetic effects on production
o Shorten good seed crop cycle of 5-7 years
● Seed Biology
o Lack of storage longevity and vigor
o Screen for pitch canker disease resistance
Longleaf Pine Seeds
● Genetics and Physiology
o Genetic improvement and provenance studies
o Genetic traits: productivity, stem quality/branch
knot size, wood quality, seed production, pine
straw quality, and resistance to diseases
(fusiform rust, pitch canker), pests, drought,
wind storms, low nutrient levels, or herbicides
o Possible linkage between disease resistance,
growth, and fecundity
o Genetic differences in seed sources across the
range (Preliminary results: little diversity among mountain,
piedmont, and coastal LLP)
o Seed/planting zones in changing climate change
o Montane or other sub-regional longleaf pine
Longleaf Pine Seedlings
● Seedling physiology, root system
architecture, and health
● Bareroot Stock
o Low survival in drought years
o Wind firmness
● Container Stock
o Refine technology on container types (hard vs.
soft wall; slotted-side vents vs. chemical
pruning; square vs. conical shape), cavity
volume/length/diameter, and nursery protocols
o Root system architecture
o Sapling toppling and stem form
Longleaf Pine Seedlings
● Direct Seeding
o Greater wind firmness
o Seedling density hard to control
o Shelterwood method
● Planting Guidelines
o Planting depth of container stock on different soil
and site types
o Machine vs. hand planting affect on survival of
container stock
o Planting window and conditions for best survival
and early growth of container stock
Plantation Establishment
● Site Preparation
o Specific requirements for wet, mesic, xeric, and
mountain areas
o Old field, agriculture, cutover sites
● Stocking Density
o Minimum stocking density to have enough trees
(300/A by age 3); skip thinning at age 30; better
for wildlife
o Higher stocking density to produce better selfpruning trees
o Stocking density affects wood quality, stand
closure, and understory plant vigor
o Stocking density that is sustainable with Rx burn
or pine straw harvest
Plantation Establishment
● Accelerated Stem Growth/Bolting
o Planting stock quality
o Site preparation, post-plant brush control, and
Rx burn after 1 or 2 years
o Effects of genetics, environment (soil types,
planting technique), and their interaction on
growth and form
o Under-planting of different stock types for stand
Seeds and Seedlings
1. Information on longleaf cone/seed
production and biology
2. Information on longleaf genetics and
provenance tests across the range
3. Off-site planting in terms of seed sources
4. Basic and applied research on Montane
5. Information on high quality container stock
6. Seedling establishment protocols on
different sites and soils across the range