How can we teach effectively? Ramesh Mehay Course Organiser, Bradford VTS Aims  identify learning objectives  introduce some educational theory  Increase your repertoire of teaching skills.

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Transcript How can we teach effectively? Ramesh Mehay Course Organiser, Bradford VTS Aims  identify learning objectives  introduce some educational theory  Increase your repertoire of teaching skills.

How can we teach
effectively?
Ramesh Mehay
Course Organiser, Bradford VTS
Aims
 identify
learning objectives
 introduce some educational theory
 Increase your repertoire of
teaching skills
The Educational Cycle
Assess Needs
Design Assessment
Set Objectives
Decide Methods
Part One – Defining the A&Os
What do they need to know?
What are the aims and objectives
of the session?
Identify what they want to learn
FIRST OF ALL, DEFINE WHAT THEY NEED TO KNOW
THAT WILL HELP YOU DEFINE THE AIMS &
OBJECTIVES
 Ask them
 Check lists (eg from the medical school)
 problem case analysis - things you know you don’t know
 random case analysis - issues you may not have identified
 critical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near
misses
 PUNs (patient unmet needs)
 DENs (doctors educational needs)
Aims & Objectives
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Important for any session you do
Good starting point – focus
Aims are general
“better insight into management of COPD”
Objectives are specific
“understand the different therapies and their step line
use” (GOLD)
Part Two – Domains of Learning
What are we trying to teach?
What are we trying to teach?
K.S.A.
 knowledge
 skills/competencies
 attitudes
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Knowledge
factual; evolving; evidence base
Evaluating and using ‘knowledge’ - critical appraisal; application of
knowledge
Skills & Competencies
Clinical, Practical, Consultation, Communication, Problem solving
Research and audit (evaluating and doing)
Attitudes
ethics etc; self awareness; commitment to maintaining standards
Personal care for patients
Practice context - practice issues; regulatory framework
Broader context - medico-political/legal/social; ethnic/cultural
Part Three – Educational Theory
What principles and philosophies in
education might help with our
teaching?
JoHari’s Window
JoHari Again
Linking knowledge to skills - Miller’s
pyramid
Does
Shows how
Knows how
Knows
Experiential learning (Kolb)
 concrete
experience
 observation, reflection
 formation of abstract concepts and
generalisations
 testing implications of concepts in
new situations
Reflective practitioner

The professional practitioner reflects on their
knowledge whilst engaging in activity. This enables
them to adapt to the potentially unique context or
problem with which they are faced (Schön,1983)
 Professional education should provide people with
the opportunity to reflect on their practice and to
identify the theories embedded in their routine
work (Coles, 1994)
Constructivism (3 Cs)
 Construction
- knowledge builds on
what is already known
 Context - is important in learning and in
applying it
 Collaboration - important in exploring
different perspectives because
knowledge varies in different contexts
and cultures
Adult learning = androgogy
 learning
what’s important to you
 applicable in the real world (context)
 learner, not teacher, is responsible
 learning is self directed
 learning is continuous, must adapt to
new situations
Feedback - definition
 Information
about performance or
behaviour which leads to action to
affirm or develop performance or
behaviour, i e
 to affirm what you do well
 to help you develop in areas you do less
well
Part Four – teaching methods
How else can we do it?
Acquiring knowledge
 Lectures
 Tutorials
 Books
 Journals
 Electronic
information sources
Other Methods
Lecture
Debate
Buzz groups
Mini-lecture
Brainstorming
Action learning
Project based
learning
Case
discussion
Critical incident
Role play
Triadic teaching
PBL
Video teaching
Task groups
Balint group
microteaching
Difficult Cases
THE REFLECTIVE CYCLE (Gibbs 1988)
…………a very useful tool for teaching.
Description
What happened?
Action plan
If it arose again what
would you do?
Feelings
What were you thinking and
feeling?
Evaluation
What was good and bad
about the experience?
Conclusion
What else could you
have done?
Analysis
What sense can you make of
the situation?
Gibbs (1988)
GROUP WORK
What Makes a Good Teaching
Session? (LAST SLIDE)
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Tailored to learner’s learning style
Dependent on learner’s knowledge and experience
Get the learner to do the groundwork
Use educational tools
Videos
Books and booklets
Papers and articles
electronic sources (software, internet)
Giving the tutorial direction - link to experience
Maintaining interest Interact
Open-ended questions
Give time
Vary content
Baggage section