The History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics 事理学的历史与发展 The History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics 事理学的历史与发展 Presented by The.

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Transcript The History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics 事理学的历史与发展 The History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics 事理学的历史与发展 Presented by The.

The History and
Development of
Cybernetics
The History and Development of Cybernetics
事理学的历史与发展
The History and
Development of
Cybernetics
The History and Development of Cybernetics
事理学的历史与发展
Presented by The George Washington University in Cooperation with
The American Society for Cybernetics
Many years ago . . .
很久以前…
The things a person had to understand to get through life were relatively uncomplicated.
一个人要从生活中理解的事情相对来说还不是很复杂。
Every object or process, which we
shall refer to as a system, was
relatively simple.
每一个物体或者过程,如果我们可称之
为一个系统,都还相对简单。
In fact, up until the last few
hundred years, it was possible for
some people to master a
significant portion of man's
existing knowledge.
事实上,一直到最近的几百年前,
对于某些人而言,他们一个人就有
可能掌握人类现存知识体系中相当
重要的一部分。
Leonardo DaVinci
Leonardo Da Vinci was a leader
in the fields of painting . .
达芬奇是绘画领域的领军人物….
. . . sculpture . . .
…但同时也是雕塑领域的…
. . . anatomy . . .
…也是解剖学专家…
. . . architecture . . .
…建筑学专家…
. . . weapons engineering, and . . .
…武器制造工程师…而且还是…
. . . aeronautical engineering. This
is his sketch for a 16th century
flying machine . . .
…航空工程师。这是他画的16世纪
的飞行器的草图…
. . . and for a parachute in case
the machine broke down.
…如果飞行器出了问题,这是降落
伞的草图。
Complexity
复杂性
As time passed, the systems that humans were concerned with became . . .
随着时间的推移,人类所关注的系统开始变得…
. . . more and more complicated.
…越来越复杂。
Transportation systems alone
have become more complex . . .
只是交通系统就已经变得更复杂了
…
. . . and more complex . . .
…而且越来越复杂…
. . . and more complex . . .
…越来越复杂…
. . . and more complex . . .
…越来越复杂…
. . . as have energy systems.
…能源系统也是如此。
Some people have suggested that technology . . .
有些人建议技术…
. . . is advancing so rapidly it . . .
…发展得如此迅猛…
. . . is outpacing our ability to control it.
…已经超出了我们能够控制的能力了。
Three Mile Island
Clearly, it is no longer possible for one person to keep up with developments in
all fields, let alone be a leader in many of them, as Leonardo Da Vinci was.
很显然,像达芬奇那样一个人能够在许多领域发展并成为各个领域的领军人物已
经不再可能了。
Specialization has become a necessity. How then, do we live and work
effectively in a technically advanced society?
专业化成为了一种必须。那么,我们怎么样才能有效地生活和工作在一个技术
高度发达的社会中呢?
Is there a way that you, the modern man or woman, can sort through the
complexity, formulate a set of principles underlying all systems and thereby
enhance your ability to regulate the world in which you live?
你,作为一个现代人,有可能在这些复杂性当中寻找出一系列适用于所有系统的
原则,并由此而提高自己的能力来调节你所居住的这个世界吗?
Cybernetics = Regulation of Systems
事理学 = 系统的调节
This question was of interest to a handful of people in the 1940s who were the
pioneers in a field that has become known as Cybernetics, the science of the
regulation of systems.
1940年的时候,有一批人对这个问题产生了兴趣,他们成了这个的领域的探索先
锋,该领域后来被称为事理学,也就是如何调节系统的科学。
Cybernetics is an interdisciplinary
science that looks at any and all
systems from molecules . . .
事理学是一门跨学科科学,研究的
是任何一种系统,小到分子…
. . . to galaxies, with special attention to
machines, animals and societies.
…大到银河系,对机器、动物和社会也
有特别的关注。
Cybernetics is derived from the
Greek word for steersman or
helmsman, who provides the
control system for a boat or ship.
Cybernetics这个词是从希腊语的
舵手steersman or helmsman来的
,舵手就是在船上控制船系统的人
。
This word was coined in 1948 and defined as a science by Norbert
Wiener, who was born in 1894 and died in 1964. He became known
as the Father of Cybernetics.
这个词在1948年由Norbert Wiener借用来定义了这门科学。Wiener生于
1894,死于1964,是公认的事理学之父。
Wiener was an applied mathematician, biologist, and electrical engineer. He
worked during World War II on the radar-guided anti-aircraft gun.
Wiener本人是应用数学家、生物学家和电子工程师。在二战期间,他研发了雷达
控制的防空高炮。
He connected a special radar to the gun so that it was aimed automatically at
the enemy aircraft. After the gun was fired, the radar quickly determined the
changing location of the plane and re-aimed the gun until the plane was shot
down.
他在高射炮上连上了一个特殊的雷达装置,会自动瞄准敌人的飞机。在炮弹发射
后,雷达会快速确定飞机的变化位置并重新瞄准飞机,直至飞机被击落。
The system imitated human functions and performed them more effectively.
这个系统模拟人的功能,并且比人更为有效。
Feedback
反馈
The anti-aircraft gun demonstrates the cybernetic principle of feedback.
Feedback is information about the results of a process which is used to change
the process. The radar provided information about the changes in location of the
enemy airplane and this information was used to correct the aiming of the gun.
高射防空炮运用了事理学中的反馈原理。反馈是有关过程结果的信息,这个结果
反过来又被用来改变过程。雷达提供了敌人飞机的方位的变化信息来调节高射炮
的瞄准。
A more familiar example of the use of feedback to regulate a system is the
common thermostat for heating a room.
使用反馈来调节系统的一个更为普遍的例子是供暖系统中的温度计。
Room Temperature Rises to 700
房间温度到了华氏70°
If the heating system is adjusted, as is common, to allow a maximum of
2 degrees variation, when the thermostat is set at 68 degrees the
temperature will rise to 70 degrees . . .
如果供暖系统被调整为允许华氏2 °的误差时,当温度计设定在华氏68°
时,实际温度会上升到华氏70°…
Room Temperature Rises to 700
房间温度上升到70°
Furnace Turns Off
炉子关闭
. . . before a temperature sensor in the thermostat
triggers the furnace to turn off.
这时候,温度计中的感应器才会把炉子关闭。
Room Temperature Rises to 700
房间温度上升到华氏70°
The furnace will remain off until the temperature
of the room has fallen to 66 degrees . . .
Furnace Turns Off
炉子关闭
炉子会一直关闭直到房间温度低于66°…
Room Temperature Falls to 660
房间温度下降到华氏66°
Room Temperature Rises to 700
. . . then the sensor in the
thermostat triggers the
furnace to turn on again.
…然后感应器会再次启动炉子
到华氏70°
Furnace Turns
On 开
Furnace Turns
Off 关
Room Temperature Falls to 660
低于华氏66°
Self Regulating System
自我调节系统
The sensor provides a feedback loop of information that allows the system to
detect a difference from the desired temperature of 68 degrees and to make a
change to correct the error. As with the anti-aircraft gun and the airplane, this
system – consisting of the thermostat, the heater and the room – is said to
regulate itself through feedback and is a self-regulating system.
感应器提供了一个信息反馈环,使得系统能够发觉到房间温度与68°的理想温度
之间的差异,从而做出变动来改正错误。与高射炮与飞机一样,这个系统包括了
温度调节计、供暖器与房间,被认为能够通过反馈来调节自身,是一个自我调节
系统。
The human body is one of the richest
sources of examples of feedback that
leads to the regulation of a system. For
example, when your stomach is empty,
information is passed to your brain.
人类的身体是一个具有丰富的反馈系统的例
子,能够调节系统。例如,你的胃空了的时
候,信息被传递到你的大脑。
When you have taken corrective action, by eating, your brain is similarly notified
that your stomach is satisfied.
当你吃了东西,也就是做了正确的纠错动作之后,你的大脑就类似于被通知说,
你的胃已经满意了。
In a few hours, the process starts all over again. This feedback loop continues
throughout our lives.
几个小时后,这个过程会再次开始。这个反馈环贯穿我们一生。
Stomach Feels Empty 胃空了
Time 时间
Stomach
Feels Full 饱了
Person
Eats 吃
The human body is such a marvel of
self-regulation that early cyberneticians
studied its processes and used it as a
model to design machines that were
self-regulating. One famous machine
called the homeostat was constructed
in the 1940s by a British scientist, Ross
Ashby.
人类的身体是如此惊奇的一个自我调节
系统,早期的事理学家们研究其过程并
将其作为设计自我调节机器的模型。内
稳态模拟器是一个非常有名的机器,是
1940年代由英国的一个科学家叫做Ross
Ashby的发明的。
Just as the human body maintains
a 98.6 degree temperature the
homeostat could maintain the
same electrical current, despite
changes from the outside.
就像人体保持华氏98.6°的体温一
样,内稳态模拟器能够不受外界的
影响而维持同样的电流。
Homeostasis
内稳态
The homeostat, the human being, and the thermostat all are said to maintain
homeostasis or equilibrium, through feedback loops of various kinds. It does
not matter how the information is carried – just that the regulator is informed of
some change which calls for some kind of adaptive behavior.
内稳态模拟器,人类,还有温度计都是通过各种不同的反馈环在保持一个内稳态
或者平衡。信息怎么运载的并不重要,不过是调节器被通知有一些变化,需要做
一些调整行为。
Another scientist, Grey Walter,
also pursued the concept of
imitating the self-regulating
features of man and animals.
另外一个科学家, Grey Walter,
也研究了模拟人与动物的自我调节
的概念。
His favorite project was building mechanical 'tortoises' that would, like this live
tortoise, move about freely and have certain attributes of an independent life.
他最钟爱的项目就是制造机器”乌龟“,它可以像这个活的真乌龟一样可以自由
走动,并且具有一个独立生命体的某些特征。
Walter is pictured here with his wife Vivian,
their son Timothy, and Elsie the tortoise.
Elsie has much in common with Timothy.
Just as Timothy seeks out food, which is
stored in his body in the form of fat, Elsie
seeks out light which she 'feeds' on and
transforms into electrical energy which
charges an accumulator inside her. Then
she's ready for a nap, just like Timothy after
a meal, in an area of soft light.
这是Walter与他妻子及儿子Timothy的照片,
还有那个机器乌龟Elsie。Elsie与Timothy有
许多相似之处。正如Timothy会寻找食物,
然后在身体里以脂肪的形式储存起来,Elsie
会寻找光,并将光转换成电能储存在身体的
蓄电池中。然后就像Timothy吃饭后要小憩
一样,Elsie也会在柔和的光亮处休息一会儿
。
Although Elsie's behavior imitates
that of a human, her anatomy is
very different. This is what Elsie
looks like underneath her shell.
尽管Elsie的行为是模拟人类的,她
的构造可完全不一样。左图的照片
就是壳子下面她的构造。
She looks a lot more like the inside of a transistor radio than . . .
她更像是一个晶体管收音机的内部构造…
. . . the inside of a human body.
But as a cybernetician, Walter
was not interested in imitating the
physical form of a human being,
but in simulating a human's
functions.
而不像一个人。但是作为一个事理
学家,Walter的兴趣并不在于模拟
人类的身体形式,而是要模拟人类
的功能。
Cybernetics does not ask . . .
事理学家询问的不是…
“What Is This Thing?”
这个东西是什么?
. . . but . . .
…而是…
“What Does it Do?”
它是做什么的?
Grey Walter did not attempt to
simulate the physical form of a
human, as does a sculptor, but to
simulate human functions.
Grey Walter并不想像雕塑家一样去模
拟人的身体形态,而是要模仿人的行
为功能。
In other words, he viewed humans . .
换句话说,他看人体….
Not as Objects,
并不是一个物体
. . . but as . . . 而是…
Processes
一个过程
For centuries, people
have designed
machines to help with
human tasks and not
just tasks requiring
muscle power.
几个世纪以来,人类设
计了帮助人们完成任务
的机器,这些任务并不
仅仅是用肌肉力量就可
以完成的。
图为音乐木偶(像八音
盒那样的机器)。
Automata, such as the little
moving figures of people or
animals that emerge from cuckoo
clocks and music boxes, were
popular in the 1700's and
machines capable of thinking
were a subject for speculation
long before the electronic
computer was invented.
像报时的布谷鸟钟与八音盒这样的
模拟人或动物行为的自动控制在
1700年代很流行,能够思考的机
器早在电脑发明前很久就一直是人
类所向往的。
Macy Foundation Meetings
1946 – 1953
梅西会议
From 1946 to 1953 there was a series of meetings to discuss feedback loops and
circular causality in self-regulating systems.
1946到1953,有一系列的会议在讨论自我调节系统中的反馈环与循环因果关系。
The meetings, sponsored by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, were
interdisciplinary, attended by engineers, mathematicians, neurophysiologists, and
others.
由梅西基金会赞助的会议是一个跨学科会议,集中了工程师、数学家、神经生理学
家以及其他许多领域的专家。
The chairman of these meetings, Warren McCulloch, wrote that these scientists
had great difficulty understanding each other, because each had his or her own
professional language.
这些会议的主席, Warren McCulloch,写道这些科学家很难彼此理解,因为每个
人都在用自己的专业语言。
There were heated arguments that were so exciting that Margaret Mead, who
was in attendance, once did not even notice that she had broken a tooth until
after the meeting.
会议的讨论非常激烈,以至于Margaret Mead在一次会议之后才发现她在会上把
自己的一颗牙咬坏了。
The later meetings went somewhat more calmly as the members developed a
common set of experiences.
后来的会议就较为平和了,因为大家有了一系列共同的经验,语言趋同一致,可
以互相理解了。
These meetings, along with the
1948 publication of Norbert
Wiener's book titled 'Cybernetics,'
served to lay the groundwork for
the development of cybernetics as
we know it today.
这些会议,与1948年Norbert
Wiener的《事理学》一书一起,奠
定了我们今天所知的事理学的基础
。
Here is a photograph taken in the 1950s of the four prominent early
cyberneticians that you have already met. From left to right they are: Ross
Ashby of homeostat fame; Warren McCulloch, organizer of the Macy
Foundation meetings; Grey Walter, creator of Elsie, the tortoise; and Norbert
Wiener, who suggested that the field be called ‘Cybernetics.'
下图为1950年代拍摄的4位著名的事理学家。从左至右为:内稳态模拟器的Ross
Ashby,梅西会议的组织者Warren McCulloch,乌龟Elsie的创造者Grey Walter,
及将学科名称建议为事理学的Norbert Wiener。
Neurophysiology 神经生理学
+
Mathematics 数学
+
Philosophy 哲学
Warren McCulloch was a key figure in enlarging the scope of cybernetics.
Although a psychiatrist by training, McCulloch combined his knowledge of
neurophysiology, mathematics, and philosophy to better understand a very
complex system . . .
Warren McCulloch是扩大事理学范畴上的一位重要人物。作为一位经过训练的精
神病专家,他将自己在神经生理学、数学与物理的知识结合起来以更好地理解复
杂系统。
. . . the human nervous system.
…和人类的神经系统。
He believed that the functioning of the nervous system could be described in the
precise language of mathematics.
他相信神经系统的功能能够用非常精确的数学语言来描述。
For example, he developed an equation which explained the fact that when a
cold object such as an ice cube touches the skin for a brief instant, paradoxically
it gives the sensation of heat rather than cold.
例如,他开发出一个方程式,用来解释了这样一个事实,就是当一个冰块在短暂
的时间内碰触到皮肤的时候,皮肤会很荒谬地感觉到热而不是冷。
Neurophysiology 神经生理学
+
Mathematics 数学
+
Philosophy 哲学
McCulloch used not only mathematics and neurophysiology to understand the
nervous system but also philosophy – a rare combination. Scientists and
philosophers are often considered miles apart in their interests – scientists study
real, concrete, . . .
Warren McCulloch 不仅用数学与神经生理学来理解神经系统,他还用到了哲学,
这是一种很少见的组合。科学家与哲学家通常被认为是风马牛不相及的学科,科
学家研究真实的、具体的…
. . . physical things, like plants, . . .
…物质的事物,例如植物…
. . . animals, . .
…动物… .
. . . and minerals, while philosophers, . .
…矿石,而哲学家们….
. . . study abstract things like ideas,
thoughts, and concepts.
…研究的是抽象的东西,像想法、思想
以及概念。
Epistemology = Study of Knowledge
认识论 = 知识的学习
McCulloch could see that there is a connection between the science of
neurophysiology and a branch of philosophy called epistemology, which is the
study of knowledge.
Warren McCulloch能够发现在作为科学的神经生理学与哲学的一个分枝——认识
论,也就是知识的学习——之间有一种联系。
While knowledge is usually considered invisible and abstract, McCulloch
realized that knowledge is formed in a physical organ of the body, the brain.
…而知识通常被认为是不可见的,是抽象的, Warren McCulloch认识到知识是在
人体的一个物理器官中形成的,即大脑。
Physical
Abstract
物质的
抽象的
Brain
大脑
Mind
心灵
Knowledge
知识
The mind is, in fact, the meeting place between the brain and an idea, between
the physical and the abstract, between science and philosophy.
心灵事实上是大脑与想法、物质的与抽象的,科学与哲学的交汇处。
Physical
Philosophical
物理的
哲学的
Experimental Epistemology
实验认识论
McCulloch founded a new field of study based on this intersection of the
physical and the philosophical. This field of study he called 'experimental
epistemology,' the study of knowledge through neurophysiology. The goal was to
explain how the activity of a nerve network results in what we experience as
feelings and ideas.
McCulloch根据自己对物理与哲学交集的研究建立了一个新的领域。他将此称为
”实验认识论“,用神经生理学来研究知识。目的在于要解释神经网络的活动是
怎样产生我们所体验的感觉与想法的。
Cybernetics = Regulation of Systems
事理学 = 系统的调节
Why is McCulloch's work so important to cyberneticians? Remember,
cybernetics is the science of the regulation of systems.
McCulloch的工作为什么对事理学这么重要呢?要记住,事理学是系统的调节的
科学。
The human brain is perhaps the most
remarkable regulator of all, regulating
the human body as well as many other
systems in its environment. A theory of
how the brain operates is a theory of
how all of human knowledge is
generated.
人类的大脑大概是所有的东西中最为非凡
的调节器,调节着人的身体以及在自己环
境中的许多其他系统。大脑是怎么运作的
理论就是人类的知识是怎样产生出来的理
论。
Whereas an anti-aircraft gun and a thermostat are devices constructed by
people to regulate certain systems, the mind is a system that constructs itself
and regulates itself. We shall say more about this phenomenon in a few
minutes.
高射防空炮与温度计是人造出来调节某些系统的,心灵是一个创立自己并调节自
己的系统。我们马上就会更多地加以介绍。
Other Concepts in Cybernetics
事理学的其他概念
Now that we have touched on some of the key people, their interests, and their
contributions, we shall look at a few additional concepts in cybernetics.
我们介绍了一些主要人物、他们的兴趣及他们的贡献,我们还要看一些更多的概
念。
Law of Requisite Variety
必要变异度定律
One important concept is the law of requisite variety. This law states that as a
system becomes more complex, the controller of that system must also become
more complex, because there are more functions to regulate. In other words,
the more complex the system that is being regulated, the more complex the
regulator of the system must be.
一个重要的概念就是必要变异度定律。当一个系统变得越来越复杂的时候,系统
的控制者一定也要变得更为复杂,因为有更多的功能需要调节。换言之,要调节
的系统越复杂,系统的调节者就必须越复杂。
Let's return to our example of a
thermostat.
回到温度计的例子。
If a house has only a furnace, the
thermostat can be quite simple –
since it controls only the furnace.
如果屋子只有炉子,那温度计就可
以相对简单,因为它只要控制炉子
就行了。
However, if the house has both a furnace
and an air conditioner, the thermostat must
be more complex – it will have more
switches, knobs, or buttons – since it must
control two processes – both heating and
cooling.
如果房子里既有炉子也有空调,温度计就会
更复杂些,更多的开关、按钮,因为它必须
控制加热和制冷两个过程。
The same principle applies to
living organisms. Human beings
have the most complex nervous
system and brain of any of the
animals. This allows them to
engage in many different activities
and to have complex bodies.
同样的原理适用于活器官。人类具
备任何一种动物中最为复杂的神经
网络与大脑。这使得人能够从事许
多不同的活动,具备复杂的身体。
In contrast, some animals such as the starfish, . . .
相反,某些动物,例如海星…
. . . sea cucumber, . . .海参…
. . . and sea anemone have no centralized brain, but only a simple nerve
network, which is all that is required to regulate the simpler bodies and functions
of these sea animals. In summary, the more complex the animal, the more
complex the brain needs to be.
…还有海葵就没有中心大脑,而只有简单的神经网络,要调节简单的身体及这些
海洋生物的功能,有这些就足够了。总而言之,生物体越复杂,大脑就需要越复
杂。
The law of requisite variety not only applies to controlling machines and human
bodies, but to social systems as well. For example, in order to control crime, it is
not necessary or feasible to have one policeman for each citizen, because not
all activities of citizens need regulation . . .
必要变异度定律不只可运用于控制机器和人体,还可用于社会系统。例如,为了
控制犯罪,不需要也不可能警察与公民的比例为1:1,因为警察并不需要管公民
的所有活动。
. . . just illegal ones. Therefore, one or two police for every thousand people
generally provides the necessary capability for regulating illegal activities.
…警察只需要管违法的行为就可以了。因此,每1000个公民有1-2名警察就可以
控制违法行为了。
In this case a match between the variety
in the regulator and the variety in the
system being regulated is achieved not
by increasing the complexity of the
regulator, but by reducing the variety in
the system being regulated. That is,
rather than hiring many policemen, we
simply decide to regulate fewer aspects
of human behavior.
在这个例子中,调节者与被调节的系统之
间的相互吻合不仅在于增加了调节者的复
杂度,而且在于减少了被调节系统的复杂
度。也就是说,我们不需要增加警察的数
量,只要决定少量的需要管理的人的行为
就可以了。
Self Organizing Systems
自组织系统
The self-organizing system is another cybernetic concept, which we all see
demonstrated daily. A self-organizing system is a system that becomes more
organized as it goes toward equilibrium. Ross Ashby observed that every
system whose internal processes or interaction rules do not change is a selforganizing system.
自组织系统是另一个事理学概念,我们每天都可以看到。一个自组织系统就是一
个在走向平衡的过程中更有组织的系统。 Ross Ashby 观察到每一个系统,只要
它的内在过程或者互动规律没有变化,这个系统就是一个自组织系统。
For example, a disorganized group of people who are waiting . . .
例如,一群散乱地站着在等车的人…
. . . to take a bus will fall into a line, because of their past experience that lines
are a practical, fair way to obtain service. These people constitute a selforganizing system.
…车来了,他们会自动排队,因为过去的经验告诉他们排队是一个让大家得到服
务的实用而公平的方式。这些人就组成了一个自组织系统。
Even a mixture of salad oil and
vinegar is a self-organizing system. As
a result of being shaken as shown
here, the mixture changes to a
homogeneous liquid – temporarily.
即使一瓶混合的沙拉油也是一个自组织
系统。摇动一会儿后,这瓶油暂时就混
合成一种稳定的液体了。
As the salad dressing is allowed
to go to equilibrium, the mixture
changes its structure and the oil
and vinegar separate
automatically. We could say that
the mixture organizes itself.
当沙拉油趋于平衡后,混合液体的
结构发生了变化,油醋自动分离。
我们说混合液体组织了自身。
The idea of self-organization
leads to a general design rule. In
order to change any object, put
the object in an environment
where the interaction between the
object and the environment
changes the object in the direction
you want it to go. Let's consider
three examples . . .
自组织原理导致了一个普遍的设计
原理。为了改变一个物体,将物体
放入到一个环境中,其中物体与环
境的互动改变物体,成为你所想要
的。我们来看三个例子…
First, in order to make iron from
iron ore we put the iron ore in an
environment called a blast
furnace. In the furnace, coke is
burned to produce heat. In the
chemical and thermodynamic
environment of the blast furnace,
iron oxides become pure iron.
第一个,为了从铁矿中分离出铁,
我们把铁矿放置在高炉中,其中煤
被燃烧产生热。在高炉这个化学和
热力的环境中,铁矿氧化物变成了
纯铁。
As a second example consider the process of educating a child. The child is
placed in a school.
第二个例子,对孩子的教育。孩子在学校中。
As a result of interacting with teachers and other students in the school, the
child learns to read and write.
作为老师与其他学生在学校互动的结果,孩子学会了读和写。
A third example is the regulation of
business by government. To regulate
their affairs the people of the United
States adopted a Constitution that
established three branches of
government. By passing laws,
Congress creates an environment of
tax incentives and legal penalties
which are enforced by the Executive
Branch.
第三个例子。政府对商人的管理。美国
人用宪法建立了三权分立的机制。要通
过法律的话,议会要建立一个由政府强
迫的具备税收优惠与法律惩罚的环境。
These incentives and penalties, which are adjudicated by the courts,
encourage businessmen to modify their behavior in the desired direction.
这些优惠与惩罚,由法院进行调节,鼓励商人改正自己的不良行为。
Each case – the iron smelting
furnace . . .
每个例子 - 铁矿分离..
. . . the school with its teachers and students . . .
老师与学生的学校…
. . . and government regulation of
business can be thought of as a
self-organizing system. Each
system organizes itself as it goes
toward its stable equilibrial state.
And in each case the known
interaction rules of the system
have been used to produce a
desired result.
…以及政府对商人的管理都可以被
看作是自组织系统。每个系统都在
走向平衡状态的过程中组织自己。
在每个例子中,已知的系统互动定
理都被用来产生出想要的结果。
The recent work on cellular automata, fractal geometry, and complexity can be
thought of as an extension of the work on self-organizing systems in the early
1960s.
最近关于细胞的自动控制研究,以及对于不规则几何学与复杂性的研究,都可以
看作是1960年代早期自组织系统工作的延续。
So far we have talked mainly about how cybernetics can help us to build
machines and to understand simple regulatory processes. But cybernetics also
can be helpful in understanding how knowledge itself is generated.
我们讨论了事理学能够帮助我们制造机器并理解简单的调节过程。但是事理学也
能够帮助我们理解知识自己是怎样产生的。
This understanding can provide us
with a firmer foundation for
regulating larger systems, such as
business corporations, nations, . . .
这个理解可以提供给我们一个更为坚
实的基础来管理更大的系统,如企业
、国家…
. . . and even the whole world.
…甚至整个世界。
In the late 1960's cyberneticians
such as Heinz Von Foerster of the
United States, . . .
1960年代晚期,美国的事理学家
Heinz Von Foerster
. . . Humberto Maturana of Chile, . . .
…智利的Humberto Maturana
. . . Gordon Pask and, .
… 英国的Gordon Pask
. . . Stafford Beer of Great Britain . . .
英国的Stafford Beer
Second Order Cybernetics
二阶事理学
. . . began extending the application of cybernetics principles to understanding
the role of the observer. This emphasis was called 'second-order cybernetics.‘
…上述几人开始将事理学的原理运用于理解观察者的角色。这被称为二阶事理学
。
Whereas, first-order cybernetics
dealt with controlled systems,
second-order cybernetics deals
with autonomous systems.
一阶事理学研究的是被控制的系统
,二阶事理学研究的是自治系统。
Role of the Observer
观察者的角色
Applying cybernetic principles to
social systems calls attention to
the role of the observer of a
system who, . . . E
将事理学原理运用与社会系统引起
了对系统观察者的角色的注意…
. . . while attempting to study and understand a social system, is not able to
separate himself from the system or prevent himself from having an effect on it.
观察者在试图研究和理解一个社会系统时,是无法将自己与系统分离开来的,也
无法阻止自己对系统产生影响
In the classical view, a scientist working in a laboratory takes great pains to
prevent his own actions from affecting the outcome of an experiment. However,
as we move from mechanical systems, such as those the scientist works with in
the laboratory, to social systems, it becomes impossible to ignore the role of the
observer.
从传统观点看,在实验室工作的科学家非常痛苦地要防止自己的行动影响到实验
的结果。但我们从机械系统(科学家在实验室工作)转移到社会系统时,要忽视
观察者的角色就不可能了。
For example, a scientist such as Margaret Mead who studied people and their
cultures, could not help but have some effect on the people she studied.
例如,像Margaret Mead这种研究人类及其文化的科学家,肯定会对她所研究的
人群产生影响的。 (Margaret Mead是著名人类学家。)
Because she lived within the
societies she studied, the inhabitants
would naturally, on occasion, want to
impress her, please her, or perhaps
anger her.
因为她就居住在自己所研究的社会中
,居民们会自然地、时不时地想要给
她留下印象,让她高兴,或者也许是
激怒她。
Mead's presence in a culture altered that culture and, in turn, affected what she
observed.
她在文化中的出现改变了那个文化,反过来又影响了她所观察的人。
This 'observer effect' made it impossible for Mead to know what the society was
like when she wasn't there.
这种‘观察者的作用’使得她无法知道这个社会在她不在那里时是什么样的。
A conscientious news reporter will
always be affected by his or her
background and experience and
hence will necessarily be
subjective. Also, one reporter is
unable to gather and comprehend
all the information necessary to
give a complete, accurate report
on a complex event.
一个称职的新闻记者总是会受到自
己的背景与经历的影响,因此会带
有主观性。同样,一个记者不可能
收集所有必要的信息来对一件复杂
的事件做出一个完整的、准确的报
道。
For these reasons, it is wise to
have several different people
study a complex event or system.
Only by listening to descriptions of
several observers can a person
form an impression of how much
a description of an event is a
function of the observer and how
much the description is a function
of the event itself.
由于这些原因,明智的办法是让几
个人去研究一个复杂的事件或者系
统。只有听取几个观察者的描述,
一个人才能形成一个印象,知道有
多少描述是属于观察者个人的,有
多少是属于事件本身的。
Whereas, in the early days,
cybernetics was generally applied
to systems seeking goals defined
for them, 'second-order'
cybernetics refers to systems that
define their own goals.
尽管如此,早期,事理学通常用于
寻找既定目标的系统,二阶事理学
则用于为自己定义目标的系统。
It focuses attention on how purposes
are constructed. An interesting example
of a system that grows from having
purposes set for it to one that defines its
own purposes is a human being. When
children are very young, parents set
goals for them. For example, parents
normally desire that their children learn
to walk, talk, and use good table
manners.
它关注目标是怎样建立的。人类就是一
个从让别人为他设立目标到他自己为自
己设立目标的一个有趣的例子。孩子小
时,父母为他设定目标。例如,父母通
常想要自己的孩子学习走路,说话,有
好的吃饭习惯。
However, as children grow older, they learn to set their own goals and pursue
their own purposes, such as deciding on educational and career goals, .
孩子大了以后,他们学会了为自己设定目标并追求自己的目标,如决定自己的教
育和职业目标。. .
. . . making plans to marry . .
计划结婚.
. . . and start a family.
建立家庭
To review what we have learned, cybernetics was first noted for the concept of
feedback.
回顾我们的学习,事理学首先注意到了反馈的概念。
The human body is a rich source
of examples of how feedback
allows systems to regulate
themselves, causing scientists to
be interested in studying . . .
人体充满了各种例子,解释反馈是
怎样允许系统来调节自身的,引起
了科学家的研究兴趣
. . . and simulating human and
animal activities, from walking to
thinking.
并且模拟人与动物的行为,从走路
到思考..
Cybernetics studies selforganizing properties and has
moved . . .
事理学研究了自组织特性
. . . from a concern primarily with
machines . . .
并将最初的关注对象机器
. . . to include large social systems.
..转向了更大的社会系统
Although we shall never be able
to return to the times of Leonardo
Da Vinci and master all fields of
existing knowledge, we can
construct a set of principles that
underlie the behavior of all
systems.
尽管我们再也回不到达芬奇的时代
,一个人可以掌握所有的已知知识
领域,我们却可以建立一系列的规
则,解释出所有系统的行为
Also, as cybernetics tells us, because the observer defines the systems he
wants to control, complexity is observer-dependent.
而且,事理学家告诉我们,因为观察者定义了他所想要控制的系统,复杂性是随
观察者而来的
Complexity, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder.
复杂性就像美一样,在每一个人的眼里是不同的。
The History and Development of
Cybernetics
Translated By:
Lei Yu
Produced By:
Enrico Bermudez
Paul Williams
Written By:
Catherine Becker
Marcella Slabosky
安斯图 Stuart Umpleby
© 2006 The George Washington University: [email protected]