Copyright Limitations and Exceptions in International Treaties and Beyond: Developing Countries and Access to Knowledge Geidy Lung, WIPO Copyright Law Division.download report
Transcript Copyright Limitations and Exceptions in International Treaties and Beyond: Developing Countries and Access to Knowledge Geidy Lung, WIPO Copyright Law Division.
Copyright Limitations and Exceptions in International Treaties and Beyond: Developing Countries and Access to Knowledge Geidy Lung, WIPO Copyright Law Division
• Fundamental or constitutional rights or public interest: freedom of speech, information, education, culture • Balance among rights and interest
Berne Convention (1886 - 1971) Rome Convention (1961) TRIPS Agreement (1994) Internet Treaties: WCT y WPPT (1996) Other treaties: Phonograms and Satellites
Technological developments and international treaties
Rome Berne TRIPS WCT WPPT 1961 1967-1971 1975 1990 ”guided development" 1994 1996 From the 70’s Internet boom Reprography, videotechnology, casettes and compact discs, satellite broadcasting, software, databases, cable television.
WCT and WPPT
Management rights information Right of Reproduction
Rights for transmissions in interactive digital networks Technological Measures of Protection Limitations and Exceptions
• Scope: ideas, theories, simple data • Duration: 50 years, 25 years, 20 years • Exclusion of some categories of works: Crown copyright • Permitted uses without authorization and remuneration: fair use or fair dealing • Permitted uses by law with remuneration: mandatory or compulsory licensing system • Legislative options for Member States. Only one mandatory exception
Analog different from digital?
• Whether new exceptions are needed in the digital environment • Whether existing exceptions from the analog environment remain appropriate in the digital environment, or need to be restricted in some way in that environment
The 3-step test
• Article 9(2) Berne Convention, Article 13 TRIPS Agreement, Articles 10(2) WCT and 16(2) WPPT – certain special cases – do not conflict with normal exploitation – do not prejudice the legitimate interests of rightholders • WTO Panel Decision, June 2000 (EU v. US) playing of radio or television broadcasts of musical works in certain bars, restaurants and other retail establishments
• SCCR – persons with disabilities – libraries – educational activities • CDIP – public domain – access to knowledge and technology – licensing practices
• Studies on limitations and exceptions in the digital environment • Information meetings on digital content for the visually impaired and educational uses • Questionnaire on limitations and exceptions • Analytical document • Visually impaired: platform and treaty proposal
• Workshops on digital preservation and rights management information • Scoping study on copyright and the public domain • Second survey on copyright voluntary registration systems: orphan works
• Survey of private copyright documentation systems and practices • Global Meeting on Emerging Licensing Issues in the Copyright Area • Research project on using copyright to promote access to information and creative content