National Meteorological Networks

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Transcript National Meteorological Networks

National Meteorological Networks
Item 3.5 (Information)
RA II/ICM-GTS 2002 (New Delhi, 7 to 10 January 2002)
Contents
1. National Meteorological Networks in JMA
1.1 Network topology
1.2 System configurations
1.3 Plans
1.4 Study items
2. National Observation Networks in JMA
2.1 Surface observation (Synoptic observation)
2.2 Surface observation (Domestic automatic weather stations)
2.3 Upper-air observation (Sonde)
2.4 Upper-air observation (Wind Profiler)
Submitted By Hiroyuki Ichijo (Japan)
1. National Meteorological Telecommunication Networks in JMA
•稚
•内
1.1 Network topology
•旭
•留
•萌 •旭•川
•川•空
•岩
•新千
•見
•丘
•倶 •札 •歳管
•沢 •珠
•寿•知 •幌 •制
•空
•都•安
•新千
•室•歳航
•蘭
•江
•差 •函•函
•館•館
•空
District Meteorological Observatories
Sapporo
•秋田
•空
Tokyo
•空
Osaka
•輪
•島
•隠岐 •西
•空 •郷
•出雲 •松•美 •鳥
•空 •江
•保 •取
•米
•鳥
•空 •空
•子
•取
•石
•見
•空
•浜
•田
•対馬空
•山
•厳
•下
•口
•原
•関
•山口宇
•福岡管
•壱岐
•部空
•制 •北九州
•空
•福
•空
•福岡
•大分
•航•岡
•佐
•空
•大
•佐賀
•賀
•分
•空
•長崎
•福•福
•航
•長
•熊•熊
•江•江
•崎
•本•本
•空
•空
•宮
•宮崎
•崎
•奄美空
•鹿児•空
•名
•鹿児 •島航
•瀬
•島
•徳之
•島空
•沖永
•良部
•帯
•帯
•広
•広
•空
•浦
•河
•秋田
Sendai
Okinawa
•紋
•別 •紋別
•網
•空
•女満
•走
•別空
•青
•青森
•森 •三沢
•空
•八
•大館能•空
•戸
•代空
Kiyose
Operational centre
Fukuoka
•稚内
•空
•種
•子
•種子
•島
•島空
•広島
•航
•広
•島
•松
•山
•松
•空
•山
•宇
•和
•島
•清
•水
•豊
•岡
•岡山
•岡
•空
•山
•高
•松
•高
•空
•松
•徳
•島•徳
•空•島
•高
•知•高知
•空 •室戸
•岬
•富
•富
•山
•金
•山
•小松 •沢
•福
•空
•空
•福
•高
•井
•井
•山
•舞
•空 •敦
•岐
•賀
•鶴
•彦•名
•阜
•名古
•京 •根•古
•屋航
•大阪 •都
•屋
•航 •大
•神
•戸
•関西
•航
•阪•奈 •津
•良
•八尾
•空
•尾
•和
•鷲
•歌
•山
•南紀白
•浜空
•盛
•岡
•宮
•古
•花巻
•酒田
•庄内
•空
•大船
•空
•渡 •綾
•山形
•里
•相
•空
•若
•新
•新•松 •仙
•川
•潟
•潟
•航•台•仙台
•航
•福
•高
•島
•福島
•田
•宇
•空
•前
•小名
•長 •松
•水
•都
•橋
•浜
•野 •代
•戸
•熊 •宮
•松
•高
•大
•東京
•調
•谷
•本 •松
•層 •新東
•管制 •学
•布 •気
•空 •本
•銚
•校 •京航
•甲
•空•東
•東ヘ
•千
•象
•飯 •府
•子
•葉
•田
•京
•庁•リ
•大
•横
•大島
•航 •浜 •館
•静
•島
•空
•山
•三宅
•浜 •御 •岡
•島空
•松 •前
•崎
•父
•八丈
•島
•島空
•八丈
•島
•潮
•岬
•久米島
•空
•那 •沖
•下地島
•覇
•那覇•縄
•空
•宮古
•管制
•宮古•航
•島
•空
•与那
•国空
•与那
•国島•石垣
•島
•石
•垣
•空
•南大
•東島
•釧
•釧路
•路
•空
•中標
•津空•根
•室
1.2 System configuration
(a) Central system
(COSMETS: Computer system for Meteorological Services)
File Switching
System
HOST Computer (MainFrame)
C-ADESS LAN
ACOS Model 7000
3 CPUs (40 MIPS)
(Star-type FDDI)
Main Memory : 256MB
Disks
Cartridge
MT Units
(CMT)
512MB×2
Disks
7.6GB×2
ACOS Model 7000
UP4800/650
Main Memory : 128MB
3 CPUs (40 MIPS)
Main Memory : 256MB
System
Numerical Analysis &
Prediction System
(Super Computer System)
Router
JMA Office of Computer Systems Operations (Kiyose)
GTS Circuits
AFTN Circuit
Domestic Circuits
Protocol Analyzer
L A N (Dual-loop FDDI)
FAX Exchange
Switch
Swi tch
Software and Table
Operation Terminals
Maintenance Terminals
(5 sets)
(4 sets)
Router
L A N (Dual-loop FDDI)
WS
WS
Packet
L i ne
Front-end Network
Processor (UNIX)
HOST Computer (Main Frame)
WS
Router
Magnetic
40.8GB×2
System Supervise &
Control Terminals
(2 sets)
Router
L i ne M oni tor B ranch
Electric
Disks
UP4800/650
Main Memory : 128MB
Concentrator
Magnetic
LBP
Front-end Network
Processor (UNIX)
Router
WS
Operation Terminals
(3 sets)
WS
Software and Table
Maintenance Terminals
(4 sets)
JMA Headquarters (Tokyo)
(b) Telecom system of District Meteorological Observatory
Earthquake and
Tsunami Observation
System
(HDLC / X.25)
Routine data
Switching host #1
Request/Reply
host #1
100Mbps
Request/Reply
host #2
Satellite cloud image
Processing host
Network
Manager
System manager
for urgent data
switching hosts
Switching hub
Router/Proxy server
Router for
sub-network
in each
division
Switching hub
Router
10 Mbps
Host for maintenance
Routine data
Switching host #2
100 Mbps
Hub
128kbps
for Kansai Airport
Packet shaper
(traffic control)
Frame
Relay
network
Hub
COSMETS
128kbps
for Osaka
4.5Mbps
Frame Relay switch
Backup connections to
adjacent Observations
(64kbps)
Osaka district Meteorological
Observatory
Uegent data
Switching host #2
64kbps
Tokyo District
Meteorological
Observatories
Fukuoka District
Meteorological
Observatories
192kbps (X.25)
Uegent data
Switching host #1
9.6kbps (HDLC)
Line Switch
128kbps (X.25)
Router
River water level
/ thunderbolt
Observations
(example of Osaka)
System manager
for routine data
switching hosts
100 Mbps
System Logging
Public network
connection host
Radar image
Processing system
64 - 128kbps
Switching hub
128kbps for COSMETS
Router
128kbps for Osaka
Router
Observatories/
Weather stations
within Osaka District
Observatories/
Weather stations
within Fukuoka District
Web server
System manager
Aviation Weather Service Centre
(Kansai international airport)
Host for maintenance
Information terminals
for airlines
Aviation weather
system terminals
1.3 Plans
•
Establishing JMA’s IP backbone network
* Consolidation of the National Meteorological Network and others such as office intra, private
telephone (VoIP) and disaster prevention networks
* Use of cost-effective transport services
* Migration from legacy protocols to pure IP
•
Definite separation of national and international systems
* Optimizing system specification considering character sets, specific functions, and requirements in
reliability, capability and flexibility
* Use light footwork components in change of requirements
* Appropriate life time of each system
•
Restructuring of district telecom systems
* Optimizing the number of systems and location
* Use of open and common applications
1.4 Study items
•
•
•
•
•
Introducing timing of IPv6 and IP multicasting
How to handle the Internet connectivity and private networks
Maintenance and keeping operability in a mixture system by multi-vendors
Boundary between self-operation and outsourcing
Risk management against the use of a cost-effective network and forefront technology
2. National Observation Networks in JMA
2.1 Surface observation (Synoptic observation)
Configuration of Surface Meteorological Observation System
Printer buffer
Sun-tracking
Propeller anemometer
Printer
Sunshine recorder
and pyranometer
Pyranometer
Display1
Display2
Data processing
unit2
Data processing
unit1
Data storage
Data storage
Lan
Observatories
Snowdepth guage
Thermometer
(Raser type)
Hygrometer
Snowdepth guage
Data transmitter
(Ultrasonic type)
Precipitation
detector
the Shelter
Tipping-bucket
rain gauge
Barometer
Data converter
Power supply
DC generator
UPS
Junction board
AC 100V
Surface Meteorological Observation Network in Japan
Meteorological Observatories
Unmanned Stations
133
24
2.2 Surface observation (Domestic automatic weather stations)
Configuration of AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System)
Rain gauge robot
AMeDAS Center
198
(NTT-Data)
Public Telephone Network
Weather robot
685
Snow depth gauge robot
214
Radio rain gauge robot
278
JMA Headquaters
Meteorological
Observatories
400MHz
Kiyose Operational Centre
Weather station
155
COSMETS (C-ADESS)
A M eD A S R obot M ap
■
Weather station
155
□
Weather robot
685
○
Rain gauge robot
198
△
Radio rain gauge robot
278
×
Snow depth gauge robot
214
父島
2.3 Upper-air observation (Sonde)
Upper-air Observation
●
Network of JMA
Wakkanai
Sapporo
● Nemuro
◎
Kofu Maru
Akita ●
Wajima
Seifu Maru
●
◎ Tateno
Yonago
●
Fukuoka ●
● Sendai
●
● Hachijojima
Shionomisaki
Chofu Maru
◎
Kagoshima
Ryofu Maru
● Naze
Naha ◎
● Ishigakijima
Chichijima
● Minamidaitojima
Minamitorishima
1.7m
600g
Type of Upper-air Observations operated by JMA
Balloon
Classification
Elements
Instruments
Altitude Range
Rawinsonde
Pressure
General Observation
Surface to
7.5m
Temperature
Humidity
RS2-91 Type Rawinsonde
600g Balloon
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Parachute
Unwinder ( used windy)
Guide Light (used night )
High Altitude Observation
1200g Balloon
1.2m
Parachute
Observation Times
00UTC, 12UTC
about 30km (10hPa)
(09JST, 21JST)
06 and/or 18 UTC:
Under significant
weather conditions
including typhoon
Surface to
about 35km (5hPa)
12UTC (21JST)
Surface to
about 15km (100hPa)
06UTC, 18UTC
(15JST, 03JST)
*Meteorological Observing
Vessels use GPS Radiosonde
(RS80-15G).
Rawin
(Radiowind )
Pressure
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
W92 Type Rawin
200g Balloon
Parachute
Unwinder ( used windy)
Guide Light (used night )
7.5m
Ground Facilities of Upper-air Observation System Type JMA-91
Radome
P.3 JICA2001
Rawinsonde Type RS2-91
Receiver
Antena Controler, Angle Signal Converter
Air Conditioner
Antena
Sonde Signal Converter
Primary Processer
Disk
Operating Panel
PC
Secondary Processer
X-Y Plotter
Printer
Printer
PC
UPS
Communicat
ion box
2.4 Upper-air Observation (Wind Profiler)
Wind Profiler Network and Data Acquisition System (WINDAS)
JMA Upper-air Observation Network
25 Wind Profilers
Wind Profiler Control Center
18 Radiosonde stations
Block Diagram of the JMA Wind Profiler Network
( WINDAS)
CONTROL CENTER (JMA headquarters )
OBSERVATION SITE
Antenna System
Module Unit
ワークステーション
IBM 互換機
Outdoor
Data
Quality
Processer Control
ワークステーション
IBM 互換機
Operating
& Watching Server 1
IBM 互換機
Server
2
Observation hut
ハブ
HUB
Weather station
HUB (ISDN系)
ハブ
Transmitter and
Receiver System
F/R Router
Router
ISDN Dial Up Router
LAN
IBM 互換機
Data Processer
IBM 互換機
Operating Display
Router
ISDN Dial
Up Router
ISDN Dial
Up Router
Router
Communication
Controller
COSMETS
National Meteorological Telecommunication Network
(FR, dedicated line basis)
ISDN circuit
WINDAS
Profiler3
Profiler24
Profiler2
10 minute values of Doppler
velocity and signal intensity
being sent every 1 hour
Profiler1
CONTROL CENTER(JMA
Headquarters)
Profiler25
Data quality control and
remote control of profilers
being made
Horizontal and vertical components of wind and signal
intensity being sent with BUFR code every 1 hour
C O S M E T S (JMA Central Computer)
NAPS
Every 6 hours
Forecast
made with
Mesoscale Model
C-ADESS
Every 1 hour
Low level wind analysis
made with
Mesoscale Model
10 minute data being sent every 1 hour
Wind profiler data
Accuracy of wind profiler winds
- Comparison with radiosonde winds –
Differences between profiler wind and radiosonde wind at all
the profiler sites
21JST 9 April 2001
Radiosonde winds at 850hPa
Wind profiler winds at 1500m level
Red : profiler winds
Blue : radiosonde winds interpolated into profiler sites