Migration - Welcome to CMHS!

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Transcript Migration - Welcome to CMHS!

C. Major Historical Global Migrations
1. Europe to North America
a. Initial settlement of colonies…about 1 million prior to 1776
and another 1 million before 1840.
--Don’t forget the slaves from Africa too…@650,000.
b. 1840s – 1850s…The Irish (potato famine) and Germans
escaping political oppression.
c. Late 1800s…The Industrial Revolution provided jobs for
millions of Northern and Western Europeans.
d. Early 1900s…Immigration peaked around 1910…the main
countries were Southern and Eastern Europeans…Italy,
Russia and Austria-Hungary.
e. Since 1945…Laws limiting Asian migration
were eased…China, the Philippines, India
and Vietnam increased. Also Latin America, especially
2. Southern Europe to South and Middle America
a. Spain and Portugal
3. Britain and Ireland to Africa and Australia
4. Africa to the Americas during the period of slavery
5. India to eastern Africa, Southeast Asia and Caribbean America
a. The British forced much of this immigration
Colonization…physical process whereby the colonizer takes over
another place, putting its own government in charge and either
moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured
outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.
1. Europeans colonized the Americas and the coasts of Africa and
parts of Asia from the 1500s to the 1800s.
2. Europeans colonized interior Africa and Asia starting in the late
1800s and into the 1900s…this was the peak of European
D. Major Regional Migrations…migrants going to a neighboring
1. Economic Opportunities – $$$$ available
a. Islands of Development – places within a region or country
where most foreign investment goes, where the vast
majority of paying jobs are located, and where
is concentrated.
are often
only short
African Islands of
Migration for
Opportunity –
Islands of
Chinese migration
in late 1800s and
1900s throughout
Southeast Asia to
work in trade,
commerce, and
2. Migration to Reconnect with Cultural Groups
a. Migration of about 700,000 Jews to
then-Palestine between 1900 and
b. Forced migration of 600,000
Palestinian Arabs after 1948, when
the land was divided into two
states (Israel and Palestine)
3. Migration to Escape Conflict and War
a. Germans heading west after WWII
b. Cubans escaping Castro
E. Intraregional (National) Migrations…within a single country or
region rather than crossing international borders.
1. United States – population moved Westward, and more
recently, Southward.
Voluntary African-American Migrations
Blacks moved to the Industrial Belt (i.e., Chicago, New York, Detroit) and Los Angeles
during World Wars (labor shortages). Now they have started moving back South.
Possible “pull” factors: changing civil rights patters and increasing job opportunities
in the South. One “push” factor may be deteriorating living conditions in the North.
2. Russia…Russification sought to assimilate all the people in the
Soviet territory into the Russian culture, during the communist
period, by encouraging people to move out of Moscow and
St. Petersburg and fill in the country.
3. Mexico…Workers from southern Mexico are moving to Northern
Mexico to fill jobs left by those who have gone to the United
IV. Guest Workers…People from poorer countries migrate to
economically growing areas to fill the need for laborers.
A. Workers are legally documented migrants with short-term visas.
B. Usually allowed to stay if the need for labor continues…however
they are often sent home when the demand for labor declines.
C. Workers send home Remittances (monies sent home to family
members in their home country).
Many countries in
the Caribbean,
Africa, Central and
South America, and
Eurasia depend on
these funds to help
their economies.
V. Refugees…People who flee across an international boundary
because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons
of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social
group, or political opinion.
Refugees usually have little
money, only the most basic
transportation, no official
documentation, and a few
small possessions.
A. Internally Displaced Persons – People who have been displaced
within their own countries, but they do not cross international
borders as they flee.
B. Asylum – the right to protection in the first country in which the
refugee arrives.
C. Repatriation – a process by which the UNHCR (United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees) helps return refugees to their
homelands once violence and persecution subside.
D. Regions of Dislocation
1. Africa – world leader in number of refugees
a. Extreme poverty, disease, governmental issues
b. Sub-Saharan West Africa – Liberia, Sierra Leone
c. Sub-Saharan East Africa – Sudan…worst current situation
--Arab Muslims vs. Black African Christians/Animists
--Over 2.2 million deaths…5 million displaced persons
--Darfur Genocide: Arab Muslims killing Non-Arab (Black)
d. Rwanda and Uganda…ethnic conflict…Hutus vs. Tutsis
e. European Colonization caused many of the problems Africa
is still experiencing…drawing borders and using Africa labor
in agriculture and mining
Ethnic conflicts are the main reasons
refugees seek to leave a region!
African Migrations
Common routes used by SubSaharan Africans. Each journey
presents a different set of perils,
whether crossing the Sahara
Desert or plying the waters of
the Atlantic Ocean or
Mediterranean Sea often in
small fishing boats, like this one
arriving in Malta.
Zaire-Rwanda border
region. Hundreds of
thousands of mainly Hutu
refugees stream out of a
refugee camp in eastern
Zaire, heading home to
Rwanda in November 1996.
Refugees from the Darfur region of Sudan
2. North Africa and Southwest Asia… This geographic region,
extending from Morocco in the west to Afghanistan in the east,
contains some of the world’s longest-lasting and most deeply
entrenched conflicts that generate refugees.
a. Israel and Palestinians
b. Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War
3. South Asia…is the third-ranking area of the world in number of
refugees, mainly because of Pakistan’s role in accommodating
Afghanistan’s refugees after the 1979 Soviet Invasion.
a. Also…after September 11, 2001, the U.S. began attacking
terrorists inside Afghanistan…many people moved into
4. Europe…The Balkan Peninsula
a. Yugoslavia collapses…ethnic conflicts erupt…Serbs,
Bosnians, and
among others,
clashed for
economic and
Several small
countries were
formed to try
to solve the
problem, but
many people
are still dislocated from their homes today.
VI. How Governments Affect Migration
A. Immigration Laws
1. Oriental Exclusion Acts (1882 – 1907)…prevented the
immigration of Chinese people to California.
2. Australian Immigration Restriction Act…ended all nonwhite
immigration to the country.
Prior to 1840,
B. United States Immigration
90% of U.S.
1. Two Big Waves
immigration was
from Britain
a. 1840 – 1930…W. and N. European
transitioning to Southern and Eastern European by 1900
--Irish (potato famine in 1840s) and Germans
--During 1900s: Italians, Russians, Austria-Hungary (Czech,
Poland, Romania, etc.)
b. 1950 – Today…Asians and Latin Americans; declining
--Asians: China, India; 1980s -1990s: Philippines, Vietnam,
and South Korea
--Latin America: Mexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador,
Cuba, Haiti
More immigrants arrive during periods of economic prosperity in the
destination country. The greatest number of international immigrants
came into the U.S. from 1980 – 2000. This number was almost matched
during 1900 – 1920.
Annual Immigration to the United States
C. Post 9/11 Immigration Policies
1. Asylum-seekers automatically detained from these 33 countries
where al-Qaeda or other terrorist groups operate
2. Any illegal immigrant can be detained even if there are no ties to a
terrorist group…especially Haiti or Mexico.
Wall being built along the
U.S.-Mexican border.