Post War problems 9.1 - Fairfield

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Transcript Post War problems 9.1 - Fairfield

border disputes, ethnic rivalries,
militarism, harsh treaty, revenge, weak
League of Nations, isolationism,
economic crises & rise of extremists.
 Germany
unable to make
reparations payment.
 France sent troops to occupy
the Ruhr Valley to take
German wealth from this
industrial & mining center.
 Germany paid workers NOT to
work for French and used
newly printed currency
 runaway inflation.)
 (1
dollar = 4, 200, 000, 000, 000 marks!
Money carried in wheelbarrows!)
 How
does inflation hurt people even if they
have saved a lot of money over their lives?
 Dawes
Plan reduced
reparations- smaller payments

French left German Territory
 Treaty
of Locarno =
Cooperation between Germany
& France.
 Germany joined League of
Nations in 1926.
 Kellogg-Briand Pact =
agreement among 63 nations to
“outlaw” war, but had no
enforcement provisions.
 started
in the mid-1920s with the worldwide
overproduction of farm products and the
lower prices and profits for farmers.
 Then in October, 1929 the U.S. stock market
“crashed,” investors panicked, pulled their
money out of Europe,





sold their U.S. stocks at cut-rate prices,
banks closed,
industry declined,
unemployment & numbers of homeless
rose throughout the western world.
 1.
Which agreement outlawedWar?
 2. Which agreement made it easier for
germans to pay back debt?
RISE OF DICTATORS
 Discouraged
masses began following dictatorial
political leaders who offered “simple solutions” to
problems.
 The democratic Weimar Republic of Germany faced
numerous problems = no outstanding leaders,
runaway inflation, and the Great Depression, led
to rise of extremists.
 What
3 dictators rose and from what country
were they?
 Govts.
lowerd wages and raising protective
tariffs, made economies worse.

protective tariffs-tax on imports so people buy
local goods
 Govts.
Spent more money to help give people
jobs

The countries became more in debt
 Renewed
interest among workers and
intellectuals in Marxist (i.e. Bolshevik,
Communist) doctrines, which
predicted
the collapse of capitalism.

Great Britain’s economic problems led Britons to vote
out Labour Party & vote in the Conservative Party,
used balanced budgets & protective tariffs, so depression
continued.
 Did not spend money or go into debt to help create jobs for
the poor


Conservatives rejected the doctrines of economist John
Maynard Keynes. Deficit Spending
“spend their way out of depressions” by putting people to
work in public works programs,
 People would have jobs and start to buy goods increasing the
economy
 Problem is the nations would be in debt

 The
conservative
Herbert Hoover was
voted out of office and
Franklin D. Roosevelt
became president
 New




Deal
Public works programs to give
people jobs
Welfare system to give poor money
to buy food
Social Security act to give elderly
pay once they retire
Programs do bring US into debt but
more people had money in pocket
 economy
didn’t fully recover
until WWII demand increased
production of goods
 How
did Germany suffer after WWI and what
things were done to try to help them out?
 What differences were there in how the US
and GB dealt with the great depression?
 Benito
Mussolini became dictator of Italy as
head of the Fascist Party
 (anti-individualism, pro-totalitarianism, promilitarism, one-party rule, single leader)
 faced
severe economic
difficulties and middle class
feared a Communist takeover.
 Mussolini formed armed Fascists
(squadristi, Blackshirts) to
attack Socialist offices &
newspapers
and to break up
strikes.
 Business & large landowners
supported Mussolini.(wealthy)
 Why
did a bad economy bring an increase of
socialism and communism?
 Why would people of the middle class and
the elite fear communism?
 Italians
were angry that they didn’t receive
more land after WWI
 Mussolini demanded more land for Italy with
his patriotic and nationalistic speeches.
 Fascists
threatened to march on Rome, so King
Victor Emmanual III made Mussolini the prime
minister.
 “Il Duce” created a dictatorship
 Ended Freedom of the press,
 made laws by decree,
 had one-party rule,
 gave police unrestricted authority
and created the OVRA (secret police.)
 Why
did the king give power to Mussolini?
 Fascism
blind faith in leader,
country, & a clear class
system
 Fascist youth group goal to
create a new generation


fit, disciplined and militaristic.
School texts were re-written w.
Fascist propaganda.
 Fascists
held onto traditional
roles of women as
homemakers and mothers.
 Mussolini however, was
unable to create a true
totalitarian state like Hitler
or Stalin
 What
was the point of starting fascist youth
groups?
 Lateran
Accords = Mussolini’s compromise
agreement w. the Catholic Church
 He granted the sovereignty of Vatican City, money
to the church and the recognition of Catholicism as
the official state religion.
 In return the pope urged Italians to support the
Fascists.
 Soviet
Union (Russia) = lost
World War I, suffered civil war
& communism, famine &
industrial collapse.
 In
a communist country who controls
business and how is money distributed?
 New


Economic. Policy (N.E.P.)
Capitalism-People could start small business for
profits(without Gov Control)
Communism-heavy industry, banks, and mines
remained in hands of govt.
 Lenin
Died in 19 24
 Stalin and Leon Trotsky fight each other for power
Trotsky’s group wanted to end the NEP &
push for rapid industrialization &
worldwide communist revolution.
 Stalin’s group wanted to continue NEP,
slower industrialization, build socialist
state at home.
 Stalin was the General Secretary of the
Communists, who appointed party
officials.
 Stalin Appointed those who favored him
into government.
 Trotsky was expelled from the party and
murdered while in exile in Mexico.

 How
dis Stalin's position help him take power
 Joseph
Stalin’s real name =
Dzhugashvili, adopted name
“Stalin” (man of steel.)
 Robbed bank for Bolshevik
party.
He was a good organizer
 In 1928 he launched his first FiveYear Plan (economic goals for
five-year periods.)

It emphasized maximum
production of arms, capital goods,
oil & steel production.
 Urban
workers lived in
crowded gov apartments

Propaganda stressed need for
individuals to sacrifice for
the socialist state.
 Collectivization
of
agriculture = private farms
eliminated, govt. took
land, people work for the
state.
 Hoarding of food and
slaughter of livestock led
famines of 1932 & 33 (10
million peasants died.)
 List
one similarity between Fascism and
Communism and one difference
 Stalin’s
quest for power and paranoid
personality led him to remove all opponents
(imagined or real.) Old Bolsheviks targeted.
 Eight million Russians were arrested,
subjected to mock trials and forced
“confessions”, sent to labor camps (gulags)
in Siberia and/or executed.
¼
page- Assess how Mussolini took power and
what changes did he bring.
 ¼ page- Assess how Stalin took power and
what changes did he bring.
 General
Francisco Franco
overthrew the republican
govt. w. the help of the
fascist
regimes of Italy &
Germany and set up a
dictatorship which supported
clergy and the rich.
 The Soviets and international
volunteers unsuccessfully
aided the republicans.
 Spain
became testing ground for new weapons &
strategies of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force.)
Pablo
Picasso’s painting of “Guernica”
reflected the suffering caused by the bombings.
 Adolf
Hitler born in Austria, failed
secondary school, rejected by art
school in Vienna.
 He was an ultra-nationalist
(German “master race of
Aryans”), anti-Semitic racist,
anti-communist, militarist and
expansionist
 Gifted orator who effectively
used the political party,
propaganda and terror.
 Why
can Nationalism be bad?
 He
fought for four years on the
western front, was wounded
 believed that the surrender of
Germany had been a “stab in the
back” by liberals.
 joined
Munich

a right-wing extremist party in
took complete control and renamed Nazi
party.
 Its
militia, known as the Storm Troops
or Brown shirts, used brutal force vs.
opponents.
 Uprising crushed Hitler was
imprisoned, where he wrote Mein
Kampf,
 Wrote of German Superiority and
need for more living
space(Lebensraum)
 realized
that Nazis would have to come to power
through legal means.
 After prison, he greatly expanded his party’s
membership throughout Germany.
 By 1932, the Nazis were largest
political party in
the Reichstag.
 What
group in the US makes Laws like the
Reichstag did in Germany
 Unemployment
and depression made
extremists more popular. Right-wing elites
looked to Hitler.
 He was a charismatic orator, “When the
speech was over, there was roaring
enthusiasm and applause… men look up to
him… as their helper, their savior, their
deliverer from unbearable distress.”
 In
1933, President Hindenburg
appointed Hitler as chancellor.
 The Reichstag building was burned
and a communist was arrested.
 Hitler responded with the “legal
seizure”of govt. with Enabling Act.
It allowed Hitler to ignore the
constitution for 4 years.
 Government jobs were purged of
Jews and democrats.
 Concentration camps created for
opponents.
 all other political parties made
illegal.
 Why
is it said that Hitler did not break the
rules to take power
 Hindenburg
died in 1934,
presidency was abolished &
Hitler became dictator.
 Public officials and soldiers
required to pledge total loyalty
to him as “Fuhrer.”
 Nazi goal was create a
totalitarian Aryan racial state
of the Third Reich, which was to
rule for 1,000 yrs!
 Then
every activity and every need of every
individual will be regulated… by the party…
there are no longer any free realms in which
the individual belongs to himself… The time
of personal
happiness is over.” (Hitler)
The Schutzstaffeln (S.S.) was an
elite force under the direction of
Heinrich Himmler that used terror
and ideology to coerce, repress,
persecute and murder millions.
 Massive public works and
government rearmament programs
solved unemployment problem.
 Mass demonstrations and rallies
(as in Nuremberg) used
propaganda and emotional frenzy
to stir up fanaticism among
youth, women, soldiers, workers,
& professionals.

 Nazis
had traditional views
towards the role of women as
wives & mothers to raise “good
Nazi families.”
 Nuremberg Laws excluded Jews
from German citizenship, from
marriage to Gentiles and were
required to
wear yellow
Stars of David.
 What
are some forms of Nazi propoganda?
 Kristallnacht
burned synagogues,
destroyed Jewish businesses,
killed many and sent 30,000 to
“camps.”

Jews were barred from public
transportation, buildings, schools,
hospitals & prohibited from
owning
or working in stores.
Forced to clean up the damage of
Kristallnacht and encouraged to
“emigrate.”
All German youth expected to join
Hitler Youth. “I swear to devote all
my energies and my strength to the
savior of our country, Adolf
Hitler. I am willing & ready to give
up my life for him, so help me
God.”
 Male activities were competitions to
encourage values such as: duty,
obedience, strength & violence.
Uniforms, military drills and
weapons training were expected of
boys ages 10-18.
 League of German Girls also had
uniforms & physical training, but
also taught domestic skills.

 What
would communist women be trained to
do in the USSR?
 Media
was also used for govt. propaganda.
Joseph Goebbels headed Nazi Propaganda
Ministry. “Triumph
of the Will” was a
documentary of 1934 Nuremberg Nazi rally
produced by Leni Riefenstahl.
 technologies
led the way in
creating a “Mass Culture” in
communications and
entertainment.
 Broadcasting facilities, mass
production of radios &
popularity of movies allowed
the masses to listen to or
watch these programs
and share in same cultural
experiences.
=
shortened work-days & work-weeks,
creation of the “weekend” and holidays
allowed people from all classes more free
time. Professional sports at large stadiums,
vacation resorts, beaches and
new
transportation methods became popular.
 Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy)
was a Nazi program that controlled peoples’
leisure activities.
 WWI,
Great Depression and rise of fascism
left many Europeans w. a sense of despair &
uncertainty.
 The Lost Generation of writers, musicians
and painters (eg. Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott
Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein) moved frantically
from one European city to another, trying to
find meaning in life (new info!)
 The
world does not make sense, so why
should art?” = & surrealism.
 Surrealistic art was inspired by the
unconscious world, portraying fantasies,
dreams & nightmares.
 Salvador Dali of Spain painted everyday
objects separated from their normal contexts
 Hitler
& Nazis rejected “modern” art as
degenerate, “shameless arrogance or of a
simply shocking lack of
skill (modern
art) might have been produced by
untalented children…”
 Nazi art glorified the strong, healthy and
heroic values of the “Aryan race.”
*Revolution in physics = Contrary to Isaac
Newton’s theory that the universe was
certain, predictable and
 orderly, later physicists described an
uncertain universe.
 *Marie Curie (radium gives off energy,
atoms not solid but active),
 Albert Einstein (theory of relativity,
matter
is a form of atomic energy),
 Ernest Rutherford (atoms can split) and
 Werner Heisenberg (uncertainty
principle = behavior of subatomic
particles is unpredictable & random.)

 Compare
and contrast Nazi Germany under
Hitler to the Soviet Union under Stalin. In
your opinion which nation was more
successful in their distinctive goals?