Post War problems 9.1 - Fairfield
Post War problems 9.1 - Fairfield
border disputes, ethnic rivalries,
militarism, harsh treaty, revenge, weak
League of Nations, isolationism,
economic crises & rise of extremists.
unable to make
France sent troops to occupy
the Ruhr Valley to take
German wealth from this
industrial & mining center.
Germany paid workers NOT to
work for French and used
newly printed currency
dollar = 4, 200, 000, 000, 000 marks!
Money carried in wheelbarrows!)
does inflation hurt people even if they
have saved a lot of money over their lives?
reparations- smaller payments
French left German Territory
of Locarno =
Cooperation between Germany
Germany joined League of
Nations in 1926.
Kellogg-Briand Pact =
agreement among 63 nations to
“outlaw” war, but had no
in the mid-1920s with the worldwide
overproduction of farm products and the
lower prices and profits for farmers.
Then in October, 1929 the U.S. stock market
“crashed,” investors panicked, pulled their
money out of Europe,
sold their U.S. stocks at cut-rate prices,
unemployment & numbers of homeless
rose throughout the western world.
Which agreement outlawedWar?
2. Which agreement made it easier for
germans to pay back debt?
RISE OF DICTATORS
masses began following dictatorial
political leaders who offered “simple solutions” to
The democratic Weimar Republic of Germany faced
numerous problems = no outstanding leaders,
runaway inflation, and the Great Depression, led
to rise of extremists.
3 dictators rose and from what country
lowerd wages and raising protective
tariffs, made economies worse.
protective tariffs-tax on imports so people buy
Spent more money to help give people
The countries became more in debt
interest among workers and
intellectuals in Marxist (i.e. Bolshevik,
Communist) doctrines, which
the collapse of capitalism.
Great Britain’s economic problems led Britons to vote
out Labour Party & vote in the Conservative Party,
used balanced budgets & protective tariffs, so depression
Did not spend money or go into debt to help create jobs for
Conservatives rejected the doctrines of economist John
Maynard Keynes. Deficit Spending
“spend their way out of depressions” by putting people to
work in public works programs,
People would have jobs and start to buy goods increasing the
Problem is the nations would be in debt
Herbert Hoover was
voted out of office and
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Public works programs to give
Welfare system to give poor money
to buy food
Social Security act to give elderly
pay once they retire
Programs do bring US into debt but
more people had money in pocket
didn’t fully recover
until WWII demand increased
production of goods
did Germany suffer after WWI and what
things were done to try to help them out?
What differences were there in how the US
and GB dealt with the great depression?
Mussolini became dictator of Italy as
head of the Fascist Party
(anti-individualism, pro-totalitarianism, promilitarism, one-party rule, single leader)
difficulties and middle class
feared a Communist takeover.
Mussolini formed armed Fascists
(squadristi, Blackshirts) to
attack Socialist offices &
and to break up
Business & large landowners
did a bad economy bring an increase of
socialism and communism?
Why would people of the middle class and
the elite fear communism?
were angry that they didn’t receive
more land after WWI
Mussolini demanded more land for Italy with
his patriotic and nationalistic speeches.
threatened to march on Rome, so King
Victor Emmanual III made Mussolini the prime
“Il Duce” created a dictatorship
Ended Freedom of the press,
made laws by decree,
had one-party rule,
gave police unrestricted authority
and created the OVRA (secret police.)
did the king give power to Mussolini?
blind faith in leader,
country, & a clear class
Fascist youth group goal to
create a new generation
fit, disciplined and militaristic.
School texts were re-written w.
held onto traditional
roles of women as
homemakers and mothers.
Mussolini however, was
unable to create a true
totalitarian state like Hitler
was the point of starting fascist youth
Accords = Mussolini’s compromise
agreement w. the Catholic Church
He granted the sovereignty of Vatican City, money
to the church and the recognition of Catholicism as
the official state religion.
In return the pope urged Italians to support the
Union (Russia) = lost
World War I, suffered civil war
& communism, famine &
a communist country who controls
business and how is money distributed?
Economic. Policy (N.E.P.)
Capitalism-People could start small business for
profits(without Gov Control)
Communism-heavy industry, banks, and mines
remained in hands of govt.
Died in 19 24
Stalin and Leon Trotsky fight each other for power
Trotsky’s group wanted to end the NEP &
push for rapid industrialization &
worldwide communist revolution.
Stalin’s group wanted to continue NEP,
slower industrialization, build socialist
state at home.
Stalin was the General Secretary of the
Communists, who appointed party
Stalin Appointed those who favored him
Trotsky was expelled from the party and
murdered while in exile in Mexico.
dis Stalin's position help him take power
Stalin’s real name =
Dzhugashvili, adopted name
“Stalin” (man of steel.)
Robbed bank for Bolshevik
He was a good organizer
In 1928 he launched his first FiveYear Plan (economic goals for
It emphasized maximum
production of arms, capital goods,
oil & steel production.
workers lived in
crowded gov apartments
Propaganda stressed need for
individuals to sacrifice for
the socialist state.
agriculture = private farms
eliminated, govt. took
land, people work for the
Hoarding of food and
slaughter of livestock led
famines of 1932 & 33 (10
million peasants died.)
one similarity between Fascism and
Communism and one difference
quest for power and paranoid
personality led him to remove all opponents
(imagined or real.) Old Bolsheviks targeted.
Eight million Russians were arrested,
subjected to mock trials and forced
“confessions”, sent to labor camps (gulags)
in Siberia and/or executed.
page- Assess how Mussolini took power and
what changes did he bring.
¼ page- Assess how Stalin took power and
what changes did he bring.
overthrew the republican
govt. w. the help of the
regimes of Italy &
Germany and set up a
dictatorship which supported
clergy and the rich.
The Soviets and international
aided the republicans.
became testing ground for new weapons &
strategies of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force.)
Picasso’s painting of “Guernica”
reflected the suffering caused by the bombings.
Hitler born in Austria, failed
secondary school, rejected by art
school in Vienna.
He was an ultra-nationalist
(German “master race of
Aryans”), anti-Semitic racist,
anti-communist, militarist and
Gifted orator who effectively
used the political party,
propaganda and terror.
can Nationalism be bad?
fought for four years on the
western front, was wounded
believed that the surrender of
Germany had been a “stab in the
back” by liberals.
a right-wing extremist party in
took complete control and renamed Nazi
militia, known as the Storm Troops
or Brown shirts, used brutal force vs.
Uprising crushed Hitler was
imprisoned, where he wrote Mein
Wrote of German Superiority and
need for more living
that Nazis would have to come to power
through legal means.
After prison, he greatly expanded his party’s
membership throughout Germany.
By 1932, the Nazis were largest
political party in
group in the US makes Laws like the
Reichstag did in Germany
and depression made
extremists more popular. Right-wing elites
looked to Hitler.
He was a charismatic orator, “When the
speech was over, there was roaring
enthusiasm and applause… men look up to
him… as their helper, their savior, their
deliverer from unbearable distress.”
1933, President Hindenburg
appointed Hitler as chancellor.
The Reichstag building was burned
and a communist was arrested.
Hitler responded with the “legal
seizure”of govt. with Enabling Act.
It allowed Hitler to ignore the
constitution for 4 years.
Government jobs were purged of
Jews and democrats.
Concentration camps created for
all other political parties made
is it said that Hitler did not break the
rules to take power
died in 1934,
presidency was abolished &
Hitler became dictator.
Public officials and soldiers
required to pledge total loyalty
to him as “Fuhrer.”
Nazi goal was create a
totalitarian Aryan racial state
of the Third Reich, which was to
rule for 1,000 yrs!
every activity and every need of every
individual will be regulated… by the party…
there are no longer any free realms in which
the individual belongs to himself… The time
happiness is over.” (Hitler)
The Schutzstaffeln (S.S.) was an
elite force under the direction of
Heinrich Himmler that used terror
and ideology to coerce, repress,
persecute and murder millions.
Massive public works and
government rearmament programs
solved unemployment problem.
Mass demonstrations and rallies
(as in Nuremberg) used
propaganda and emotional frenzy
to stir up fanaticism among
youth, women, soldiers, workers,
had traditional views
towards the role of women as
wives & mothers to raise “good
Nuremberg Laws excluded Jews
from German citizenship, from
marriage to Gentiles and were
Stars of David.
are some forms of Nazi propoganda?
destroyed Jewish businesses,
killed many and sent 30,000 to
Jews were barred from public
transportation, buildings, schools,
hospitals & prohibited from
or working in stores.
Forced to clean up the damage of
Kristallnacht and encouraged to
All German youth expected to join
Hitler Youth. “I swear to devote all
my energies and my strength to the
savior of our country, Adolf
Hitler. I am willing & ready to give
up my life for him, so help me
Male activities were competitions to
encourage values such as: duty,
obedience, strength & violence.
Uniforms, military drills and
weapons training were expected of
boys ages 10-18.
League of German Girls also had
uniforms & physical training, but
also taught domestic skills.
would communist women be trained to
do in the USSR?
was also used for govt. propaganda.
Joseph Goebbels headed Nazi Propaganda
of the Will” was a
documentary of 1934 Nuremberg Nazi rally
produced by Leni Riefenstahl.
led the way in
creating a “Mass Culture” in
Broadcasting facilities, mass
production of radios &
popularity of movies allowed
the masses to listen to or
watch these programs
and share in same cultural
shortened work-days & work-weeks,
creation of the “weekend” and holidays
allowed people from all classes more free
time. Professional sports at large stadiums,
vacation resorts, beaches and
transportation methods became popular.
Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy)
was a Nazi program that controlled peoples’
Great Depression and rise of fascism
left many Europeans w. a sense of despair &
The Lost Generation of writers, musicians
and painters (eg. Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott
Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein) moved frantically
from one European city to another, trying to
find meaning in life (new info!)
world does not make sense, so why
should art?” = & surrealism.
Surrealistic art was inspired by the
unconscious world, portraying fantasies,
dreams & nightmares.
Salvador Dali of Spain painted everyday
objects separated from their normal contexts
& Nazis rejected “modern” art as
degenerate, “shameless arrogance or of a
simply shocking lack of
art) might have been produced by
Nazi art glorified the strong, healthy and
heroic values of the “Aryan race.”
*Revolution in physics = Contrary to Isaac
Newton’s theory that the universe was
certain, predictable and
orderly, later physicists described an
*Marie Curie (radium gives off energy,
atoms not solid but active),
Albert Einstein (theory of relativity,
is a form of atomic energy),
Ernest Rutherford (atoms can split) and
Werner Heisenberg (uncertainty
principle = behavior of subatomic
particles is unpredictable & random.)
and contrast Nazi Germany under
Hitler to the Soviet Union under Stalin. In
your opinion which nation was more
successful in their distinctive goals?