Renewing the Sectional Struggle

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Transcript Renewing the Sectional Struggle

Renewing the Sectional
Struggle
Chapter 18
Popular Sovereignty
Newly acquired territory
from Mexico caused
issues b/t the North and
the South
Northerners supported
the Wilmot
Proviso/Southerners
blocked the Proviso’s
passage
Election of 1848
Democrats nominated
General Lewis Cass –
“Father of Popular
Sovereignty”
Popular Sovereignty
The people liked popular sovereignty
because it tossed the slavery problem into
the laps of the people.
Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor
Antislavery men in the North organized the
Free Soil Party
Free Soil Platform
Supported the Wilmot Proviso
Against slavery in the territories
California Gold Rush
1848 Gold is discovered in California
California becomes a state overnight
1849 California drafted a constitution that
excluded slavery and applied for
admission to the union
If California was admitted into the union it
would upset the balance; prior to 1849
there were 15 slave states and 15 free
states
Sectional Balance
Southerners were
angered by the
abolition of slavery
in Washington D.C.
Underground
Railroad
Compromise of 1850
Clay, Webster and Calhoun come together
to negotiate a compromise to the
California issue
Taylor seemed hell bent on vetoing any
compromise
Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore signed the
compromise measure
Concessions to the
North
Concessions to the
South
California admitted as
a free state
Territory disputed by
Texas and New Mexico
to be surrendered to
New Mexico
Abolition of the slave
trade in the District of
Columbia
The remainder of the
Mexican Cession area
to be formed into the
territories of New
Mexico and Utah, w/o
restrictions on slavery,
hence open to popular
sovereignty
Texas to receive 10
million in compensation
Stringent fugitive
slave laws
Who got the better deal?
North
California as a free
state tipped the
balance permanently
against the south
Many northerners
refused to carry out
the Fugitive Slave
Laws which caused
further resentment.
Nicaragua…A state?
1852 Franklin Pierce
became president
Pierce was in favor of
expansionism
Nicaragua was of
particular interest
Led to a treaty b/t
America and Britain that
said neither country could
fortify or secure any
isthmian waterway
America Becomes a Pacific Power
Commodore Matthew
Perry opened up
Japan for trade in the
1850s
Americans attempted
to seize Cuba from
Spain
When Northerners got
wind of the plan
outrage…Pierce
dropped the idea
Transcontinental Railroad
Transcontinental railroad
proposed to solve
transportation problems
Best route was south of the
Mexican border because
federal troops were in the area
to protect the railroad
Gadsden Purchase – gave
Mexico $10 million
Northerners supported building
transcontinental railroad
through Nebraska but
Nebraska was unorganized
Kansas Nebraska Scheme
Large numbers of
pioneers already living on
the border of Nebraska
and Missouri
Stephen Douglas
supported (1) ending the
deadlock between the
North and South (2)
expanding the west
Proposed dividing
Nebraska into 2 territories
These territories would
decide the slavery issue
by popular sovereignty
Kansas Nebraska Act
Because Kansas lay due west of Missouri it
would choose slavery and Nebraska due west of
free soil Iowa would be free
The Kansas Nebraska Act would require a
repeal of the Missouri Compromise
One of the most momentous measures to ever
pass Congress and one step closer to war
Kansas Nebraska Act wrecked the Compromise
of 1820 and 1850
Act led to the formation of the Republican party