Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell - Downey Unified School District

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Transcript Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell - Downey Unified School District

Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell
Eu – Good / True
Karyote- Kernel (nucleus)
Cell Membrane
The Cell Membrane is made of a phospholipid
bilayer
Phospholipids – are made of a glycerol,
phosphate, and two fatty acids
Bilayer- Two Layers
Phospholipids (the dancing Baker)
A Phospholipid Bilayer
Membranes are Selectively
Permeable
• Some substances cross the membrane while
others cannot cross at all.
Peripheral Proteins
Are located on cell membrane: on the outside of the cell and
on the inside of the cell attached to membrane
Integral Proteins
Are located in the cell membrane
Fluid Mosaic Membrane Model
• The membrane acts more like a fluid than a
solid.
• Proteins can change locations in the
membrane
Organelles
Organelles
• Cytoplasm – the entire contents
between the plasma membrane and
the nucleus
• Cytosol- the jelly like substance that
surrounds all the organelles
Mitochondria –the powerhouse
• Mitochondria have many
internal folds called cristae
(Kris-tee)
• This is the organelle that
produces ATP for Energy
• This organelle has its own
“Mitochondrial DNA”
The inside of the
mitochondria is
called the MATRIX
Ribosomes – Protein Assemblers
• Ribosomes have no membrane
They are:
• Made of RNA and Protein
• Responsible for making proteins
• Found in the cytosol and on the Rough
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum – the highway
•
•
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 1.
Covered with ribosomes
2.
Makes and transports proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum1.
2.
Makes Steroids
Regulates calcium levels in muscle cells
Rough
And
Smooth
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus – Packaging and Secreting
• Is a series of
flattened sacs with a
convex shape
• It makes, packages
and distributes
proteins to the cell
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes – the digester
• Have a phospholipid
monolayer
• Digest proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids and
DNA and RNA
• Contain enzymes that
break down old
organelles, viruses and
bacteria.
Cytoskeleton – the scaffolding
Provides the structural support for a cell
Made of
• Microfilaments-small threads of actin
protein. Responsible for cell movement
• Microtubules- large hollow tubes that help
during mitosis
Green = Microtubules
Blue = Chromosomes
Red = Mitochondria
Cilia and Flagella
Responsible for cellular locomotion (movement)
Cilia – hair like
projections from the cell
Flagella – one to
several extensions from
the cell
Microtubules in a 9:2 Ratio
Nucleus
• Contains a nuclear skeleton known as the
Nuclear Matrix
Nucleus
• Nuclear envelope- surrounds the nucleus
• Cromatin – unraveled chromosomes.
• Chromosomes – contain genetic
information
• Nuclear pores – openings in the nuclear
envelope
• Nucleolus - makes ribosomes
Cell Wall
• Only in plant cells
• They are rigid structures made of cellulose
Vacuoles
• Store waste, food, and
water. Makes up most of
many plant cells.
Plastid (found primarily in plant cells)
• Chloroplast- captures energy from the sun
to make sugar
Thylakoid