Electric Cars - Fenwick High School

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Transcript Electric Cars - Fenwick High School

Electric Cars

Driving the Nation to a Cleaner Environment

History of Electric Cars

• 1832-1839 Robert Anderson invented first electric carriage • Designed by Professor Stratingh of Holland and built by Christopher Becker • Thomas Davenport and Robert Davidson built more successful vehicles in 1842 • Gaston Plante improved the storage battery

…History…

• France & Britain were the first to support it • 1899-1900 was the most popular time for EVs in America • More popular because gasoline was expensive, the engine was harder to start, it was noisy, and produced lots of smoke • Averaged around $3000

…History…

• Popularity declined around the 1930s • Charles Kettering invented the electric starter • Better roads system connected cities • Discovery of Texas crude oil • Mass production of internal combustion vehicles by Henry Ford

…History…

• Almost no EVs used in the 1960s • There was a need for alternative fueled vehicles because of the exhaust emissions • The first electric Battronic truck was made in 1964 • Today several legislative and regulatory efforts have restored electric vehicle development worldwide

Early Electric Car

Battronic Truck

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

• Aimed to improve air quality by creating restrictions releasing harmful pollutants into the atmosphere • Promoted cleaner burning fuels which increased natural gas demand • Increased production of EVs because of restrictions on gasoline powered vehicles

Energy Policy Act of 1992

• Encouraged the electricity generation market • Established a new category of electricity producer: the exempt wholesale generator • Huge boost to electric power industry

California Air Resources Board

• • Mission: “

To promote and protect public health, welfare and ecological resources through the effective and efficient reduction of air pollutants while recognizing and considering the effects on the economy of the state.”

http://www.arb.ca.gov/html/mission.htm

How It Works

• Powered by fuel cells and an electric motor • Electric motor gets power from a controller which gets power from rechargeable batteries • Accelerator pedal hooks to a pair of potentiometers, which are variable resistors that provide the signal of how much power to deliver

…How It Works…

• Each motor has 2 potentiometers for safety • 2 types of motors: DC or AC • DC runs on 96-192 volts • AC is a 3-phase motor that runs at 240 volts with a 300 volt battery pack

…How It Works…

…How it Works

• DC is simpler and less expensive • Has a 20,000 watt – 30,000 watt motor and a 40,000 watt – 60,000 watt controller • Controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal • The pulse power is more than 15,000 times per second

…How It Works…

…How It Works…

• Able to use any 3-phase AC motor • Regen feature • Controller creates 3 pseudo-sine waves and needs to reverse the polarity of the voltage 60 times per second • Needs 6 transistors

Charging an EV

• Pumps electricity into batteries as quickly as batteries will allow • Monitors batteries and avoids damaging them • Can recharge from any outlet • Average amount of energy the car can consume is 1.5 kilowatts per hour • Can take 10-12 hours to fully recharge

Converting to an EV

• Can convert existing gasoline cars into electric cars at home • Mainly uses a DC motor and DC controller • Voltage is decided by owner, usually between 96 and 192 volts • Usually have a manual transmission • Use lead-acid batteries

…Converting To An EV…

• • • • • Remove the engine, gas tank, exhaust system, and clutch Attach an adaptor plate to the transmission and mount the motor and controller Find space to safely install the batteries Wire the batteries and motor to the controller Install accessories

Problems With Batteries

• They are heavy • They are bulky • They have a limited capacity • They are slow to charge • They have a short life • The are expensive

Environmental Advantages

• Environmentally friendly • No tailpipe emissions or local pollution • Not entirely pollution free because they are charged from electric-power grids • Gasoline powered cars produce 22 lbs. of CO2 vs. 7 lbs. for an electric car • Batteries can be recycled

…Environmental Advantages…

• California tried to pass a Zero Emission Mandate that required 2% of vehicles to be completely pollution free • General Motors sued • 35% of air pollution comes from cars, motorcycles, and trucks

Economic Advantages

• Traveling 25 miles on 5 kwh costs $0.40 for an electric car while it costs $2.00-$3.00 with gasoline cars • An electric car can be charged with a solar panel • Generates many new jobs • Less dependent on other countries for oil

Advancements

• Iver Anderson, Bill McCallum, and Matthew Cramer from the US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory designed a “high performance permanent magnet alloy • Can operate effectively at 200 C • Less degradation of magnetic properties at high temperatures

Disadvantages

• Short battery life • Long time to charge batteries • Batteries are expensive

Advantages

• More environmentally friendly • More efficient energy use • No more paying outrageous prices for gas • Easy to use or convert to • Batteries can be reused and recycled

Sources

• • • • • http://auto.howstuffworks.com/electric-car2.htm

http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/transportation/elec tric.html

http://www.evworld.com/general.cfm?page=evFA Q&title=EV%20FAQs http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsel ectrica.htm

http://www.mindfully.org/Air/GM-Sues-CA ZEV.htm