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Solar System Physics and Space
Technology Program
at IRF-Kiruna
Prof. Stas Barabash
Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna
Title and definition
Programmet för solsystemets fysik och rymdteknik
Solar system physics and space technology program
SSPT program at IRF-K
The goal:
Study the environment and the solar wind interaction as well as the
evolution and dynamics of solar system objects with focus on the
inner planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and dust. Development of
scientific instrumentation for satellite-based measurements in
support of space exploration.
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Research fields
• Space plasma physics
• Satellite - borne instrumentation for particle measurements
(experimental space plasma physics), hot plasma range (~10 eV 100 keV….1 MeV)
• Data analysis and simulations
• Meteor research (presented by Asta)
• Ground - based measurement techniques
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Scientific topics (satellites)
• Comparative magnetospheres
How different are plasma environments?
• Solar wind and atmospheres
How does the interplanetary medium affect planetary
atmospheres?
• Plasma and neutral gas/dust in space
How does different states of matter co-exist?
• Plasma and surfaces
How does the interplanetary medium affect planetary
surfaces?
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Head of SSPT program
Stas Barabash
Head of
Technical Group
Kjell Lundin
Deputy (Science)
Mats Holmström
Deputy
Herman Andersson
Mechanical group
Jan Johansson
Rickard Kumpula
Tero Saarijätvi
Electrical group
Vesa Alatalo
Magnus Emanuelsson
Jonas Olsen
Stefan Karlsson
Johan Svensson
Lars Wittikko
Programmers
Hans Borg
Leif Kalla
Scientists
Futaana Yosohifumi
Herbert Gunell
Rickard Lundin
Kazama Youchi
Hans Nilsson
Asta Pellinen
Martin Wieser
Yamauchi Masatoshi
Ph.D. students
Andreas Ekenbäck
Sasha Grigoriev
Klas Johnsson
Ella Karlsson
Johan Kero
David McCann
Csilla Szasz,
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Staff
• 2 professors (=1.2 FTE)
• 8 senior scientists and Post Docs (internally and
externally supported) (=6 FTE)
• 7 Ph.D. students (all supported by Forskarskolan)
• 11 engineers and technicians (= 11 FTE)
• 2 Programmers (=2 FTE)
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Interactions in the group
New!!
Simulations
Technical group
Experiment
Data analysis
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Uniqueness of the group
• Small, highly competence group of space scientists and engineers
working together
• From idea via experiment to final results and theory.
• Own development, test, calibration, and manufacturing facilities
• Flexibility, low cost, shorted development cycles
Mechanical workshop
Thermal vacuum and
Ion /electron calibration
system
Solar balance test
system
Electronic laboratory
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Kiruna-made instruments
1992, TICS, MATE
1988
ASPERA
2002, ASPERA-3
1996
ASPERA-C
1998
IMI
2005
ASPERA-4
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Space missions. Overview
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Sounding rocket era: 1964 - 1986
First satellite experiment : ESRO 1A - 3/9 1968
First interplanetary experiment: Phobos 1 - 7/7 1988
IRF - Kiruna satellite experiments:
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Earth’s magnetosphere: 16
Mars: 5
Venus: 1 (2006)
Comets: 2
Moon: 2 (1 - 2008)
Jupiter / Sun: 1
Mercury: 2 (2012)
• PI instruments on all non-American missions to Mars
since 1988.
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History - Future. Road map
Prognoz 8
ESRO 4
Freja
Earth
ESRO 1A
Double
Star
Munin
Cluster 2
ESRO 2A
GEOS 1
Viking
Astrid 1
Astrid 2
Chandrayaan
Interball 1
Interball 2
Planets
GEOS 2
Venus
Express
Prognoz 7
Cluster 1
Smart-1
Phobos 1
Phobos 2
1960
1970
1980
1990
Ulysses
Nozomi
Mars 96
2000
Mars
Express
Rosetta
?
Bepi
Colombo
2010
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Current ESA missions (1)
Mars Express (ESA)
ASPERA-3 (PI), launch May 2003
First combined electron, ion and
ENA measurements
Venus Express (ESA)
ASPERA-4 (PI), launch Nov. 2005
First combined electron, ion and
ENA measurements
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Current ESA missions (2)
Rosetta (ESA)
ICA (PI), launch March 2004
Ion measurements
at the Chyrumov- Gerasimenko comet
SMART-1 (ESA)
D-CIXS (Co-I), Sept. 2003
X - ray measurements
at the Moon
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International cooperation
Chandrayaan-1 (ISRO)
ENA (Co-PI), Nov. 2007
MMO (ESA / JAXA / ISAS)
MPPE/ENA (Co-PI), 2012
Double Star - Polar (ESA / China)
NUADU (Co-PI), June 2004
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Main scientific subjects
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The Grand Tour
• Comparative magnetospheric studies: to complete The
Grand Tour - Earth, Mars, Venus, Moon, Mercury, Comets
• How the environment affects the planet’s evolution
Mercury
Moon
Mars
Earth
Comets
Venus
Solar Wind
Flank Cold Ion
Outflow (1 - 100 eV)
Tail Beams
(0.1 - 3 keV)
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Comparative magnetospheres
Types of the solar wind interactions
Object
Ionosphere Magnetic field
SW interface
Mercury
No
Yes
Surface/magnetopause
Venus/ Mars
Yes
No
Ionopause
Earth
Yes
Yes
Magnetopause
Moon
No
No
Surface
Comets
Asteroids
"Yes"
No/"Yes"
No
No/Yes
Contact surface
Surface / Small scale
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Mars - main stop
• Mars research: near - planetary environment impact on
the Mars’ atmosphere
• Astrobiological aspects: water loss
• Implications for the Earth: role of the magnetic field in the
atmosphere protection
• Space Plasma Physics: multicomponent plasmas,
minimagnetosphere (Re << L < Rp)
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Venus - the hottest planet in the Solar System
• Earth and Venus started as twin planets. Why are they so
different now?
• Biggest mystery - reason for the
run - away green house effect on
Venus.
• Unique comparative
magnetospheric studies: Mars Venus
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Thrust to the Moon!
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Back to the Moon: Solar wind and near Moon environment
Mercury analogue
Plasma - surface interaction, a missed field.
Physics of minimagnetospheres (comapre with Mars!)
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Mercury - the smallest magnetosphere
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Plans (satellites)
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New frontiers and plans. Missions
• Aeronomy / space physics mission to Mars (never done
before!)
• Multi - point magnetospheric missions
• Giant planet magnetospheres - an ESA Jupiter mission
after 2015.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
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New frontiers and plans. Instrumentation
Space instrumentation of the new millennium:
• scientific micro / nanosatellites
• miniaturized instrumentation (on-going)
• advances ion mass analyzers (increased M/DM)
• radically new measurements techniques (e .g. imaging ion
/ENA mass spectroscopy, MEMS - micro
electromechanical systems) (on-going)
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New frontiers and plans. Simulations - data analysis
• Hybrid codes (user friendly!) for different environment.
Global models of the solar wind - planet interaction
• Parallel computing
• Applied tasks (instrument / component simulations)
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Programmatic implementation
• National / bilateral projects coherent with the ESA
programs
• Small-scale highly focused missions to Mars
• ESA missions within Space Science and Aurora programs
• New mission proposals: magnetospheric physics:
multispacecraft - missions
• New experiment proposals: Mars, Moon environment, Jupiter
• Experiments through International cooperation: China,
Japan, India, Russia
• China, India, Russia missions to the Moon and Mars and
magnetospheric missions
• Nanosatellite projects: Institute level
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Space Science Results
(student talks to follow!)
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