Tonga Institute of Higher Education

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Transcript Tonga Institute of Higher Education

Tonga Institute of Higher Education

IT 245 Management Information Systems

Lecture 1

General Information

IT 245:

4 Hours of lectures every week

IS1 Tue & Thur 2 – 4 IS2 Mon & Wed 2 – 4

General Information

Course Web Page

Course Web Page is under construction. Will be up and run shortly


Grading Policy

– Tests 20% – Assignments & Quizzes 15% – Project 15% – Final Exam 50%

Class Participation/Attendance contribute to the final mark when marks are on the border line.

Late homework policy

are accepted!

- No late assignments

Tests, Assignments & Quizzes and Projects


– There will be 2 tests as it’s shows on the course outline.


- will be assigned every week, and is to be turned in the following week. This is mainly written homework and is to be done separately.


– Quizzes will be once a week. They will be short and last no more than 10 minutes

One long-term project

– Details will be given as soon as the first chapter is covered

Final Exam

-There is one final

Topic to be covered!

– – – – –

As given on the course outlines

Foundations of Information Systems in Business

Competing with Information Technology

– – – – –

Computer Hardware & Computer Software Data Resource Management Telecommunications and Networks The Internetworked E-Business Enterprise Electronic Business Systems & Electronic Commerce Systems E-Business Decision Support Developing E-Business Strategies Developing E-Business Solutions Security and Ethical Challenges of E-Business Enterprise and Global Management of E-Business Technology

Why learn this stuff?

• As students of information technology it is very important to be familiar with the management of concepts and practice of Information System.

• You have learned things about Information technology and you should also understand how to manage those things.

What will this course do?

• By the end of this course, you will be familiar with the management of concepts and practice of Information systems.

Computer History

Let start our journey for 245 with some Basic Principle – History – Basic Principle

History of Computers

• Instructing an electronic device (Computer) to perform some task of yours, you need to have some understanding of these two things : -

the history the components and how they coordinate with each other.

History of Computers

• Many discoveries and inventions have directly and indirectly contributed to the development of the personal computer (PC) • The first computer of any kind were simple calculators. Even these evolved from mechanical devices to electronic digital devices.

Timeline • Timeline of some significant events in computer history.


• 1617John Napier creates “Napia’s Bones” wooden or ivory rods used for calculating.

John Napier

( 1550 – April 4 , 1617 ) was a Scottish mathematician He is most remembered as the inventor of natural logarithms , of and astrologer .

Napier's bones


Napier's rods

and for popularizing the decimal point function . He was born in Merchiston Tower, Edinburgh . Although he did not invent the natural logarithm , it is sometimes known as the

Napierian Logarithm



• 1642 Blaise Pascal introduces the Pascaline digital adding machine.

Blaise Pascal

( June 19 , 1623 – August 19 , 1662 ) was a French mathematician , physicist , and religious philosopher sciences include the construction of mechanical calculators . Important contributions by Pascal to the natural and applied , the study of fluids , and clarification of concepts such as pressure and vacuum . Pascal also did groundwork in projective geometry and in probability theory , which has major ramifications in economics and the social sciences .

Most of these contributions were made early in his life, as following a works, the mystical experience in and writing about philosophy and

Lettres provinciales

months after his 39th birthday.

1654 and the , he fell away from mathematics and physics and devoted himself to reflection theology . This period was characterized by the composition of his two most famous


. Pascal suffered from ill-health throughout his life and died two


• Charles Babbage conceives the Difference Engine and later the Analytical Engine, a electronic computers •

Charles Babbage

( December 26 , 1791 October 18 , 1871 ) was an English – mathematician , analytical philosopher and (proto-) computer scientist who originated the idea of a


computer uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum . In 1991 . Parts of his , working from Babbage's original plans, a difference engine was completed, and functioned perfectly. It was built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century , indicating that Babbage's machine would have worked.

Born December 26, 1791 in Teignmouth, Devonshire UK, Died 1871, London; Known to some as the "

Father of Computing

" for his contributions to the basic design of the computer through his Analytical machine. His previous Difference Engine was a special purpose device intended for the production of tables.


Le De Forest patents the vacuum tube triode, used as an electronic switch in the first electronic computers

Lee De Forest

, ( August 26 , 1873 June 30 , 1961 ), was an American inventor with over 300 patents to his name. De Forest invented the Audion , a vacuum tube that takes relatively weak electronics .

electrical signals and amplifies them. De Forest is one of the fathers of the "electronic age," as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of He was involved in several patent lawsuits (and he spent a fortune from his inventions and later acquitted.

on legal bills). He had four marriages, several failed companies, was defrauded by business partners, and was once indicted for mail fraud


• John von Neumann writes “First Draft of a report on the EDVAC(Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)” in which he outlines the architecture of the modern stored-program computer.

• (

John von Neumann (Neumann János)

December 28 , 1903 – February 8 , 1957 ) was a Hungarian-American-German-Jewish mathematician who made important contributions in quantum physics , functional analysis , set theory , computer science other mathematical fields.

, economics and many The EDVAC is the successor of the ENIAC. Made by the same designers: Mauchly and Eckert.


• The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was one of the worlds first computer.


large stand-alone machine Used large amounts of electricity Contained miles of wires and thousands of vacuum tubes Considered immensely useful when compared to hand-operated calculators

1946 ENIAC is introduced, an electronic computing machine build by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert

1940’s Cont’ •


On December 23, William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and JohnBardeen successfully test the point-contact transistor, setting off the semiconductor revolution.


Maurice Wilkes assembles the EDSAC, the first practical stored-program computer at Cambridge University.


• IBM sold its first business computer.



Computational power was equivalent to 1/800 of a typical 800-megahert Pentium computer sold in 2000 perform one task at a time Typical input and output devices were punch cards and paper tape

Research Work !!!

• Use the internet to find what development that happen to electronic digital devices in the following years.

– 1950 – 1952 – 1953 – 1954 – 1955 – 1956 – 1958 – 1959


• Expensive time-sharing computers became popular in large organizations that could afford them –

30 people could work on one computer simultaneously

Input occurs via teletype machine

Output is printed on a roll of paper

Could be connected to the telephone

Research Work !!!

• Use the internet to find what development that happen to electronic digital devices in the following years.

– 1960 – 1961 – 1964 – 1965 – 1966


• The advantage of computer networks was realized –

Email and files transfer were born

Research Work !!!

• Use the internet to find what development that happen to electronic digital devices in the following years.

– 1970 – 1971 – 1972 – 1973 – 1974 – 1975 – 1976 – 1977 – 1978 – 1979


• PC’s became available in large numbers.

– Networks of interconnected PC’s became popular (LANs) TCP-IP – Organizations utilized resource and file sharing

Research Work !!!

• Use the internet to find what development that happen to electronic digital devices in the following years.

– 1980 – 1981 – 1983 – 1984 – 1985 – 1986 – 1987 – 1988 – 1989


• An explosion of computer use occurs.

– Hundreds of millions of computers are being used in business and homes – Most computer are now connected to the internet – Java is quickly becoming the common language of today’s computer.

Research Work !!!

• Use the internet to find what development that happen to electronic digital devices in the following years.

– 1990 – 1991 – 1993 – 1994 – 1995 – 1986 – 1997 – 1998 – 1999

Research Work !!!

• From 2000 to 2006, there are lots of different development in the digital electronic devices. Use the internet or any other media to identify at least 3 from each year.

Home Work 1

• There are some proposed research work given so far. Find some important development that happen to electronic digital devices in the following years 1950’s, 1960’s, 1970’s, 1980’s, 1990’s, 2000’s • In homework 1, you are suppose to hand in 2 important development on 1950’s to 1990’s. You suppose to hand

Basic Revision

How old is the word Computer?

• From our previous Discussion. The idea of digital electronics starts since 1617 • Has been part of the English language since 1646 • 1940 dictionary define computer as a person who perform calculation • Modern definition emerged 1940’s when the first electronic computing device was developed by Von Neumann

What is a Computer?

• Before the existence of what we now know as a computer – the term computer was define as a person who computes or performs calculation.

What is a Computer?

• Von Neumann define computer as a device (machine or piece of equipment) that accepts data as input, process data, store data and produce output.

Output Process Data as Input Store Processing Device

What is a computer?

• Data is input by the INPUT Devices

e.g. Keyboard, Scanner etc

• Data is process by the PROCESS Devices

CPU Central Processing Unit

• Data is output by the OUTPUT Devices

Monitor, Printer etc

• Data is stored by the STORAGE Devices

Hard Disk, Foppy Disk etc

Computer and Computer Components


A device that accept inputs, process data, stores data and produce output


Physical Components of the Computer System (CPU, Monitor, Printer, Keyboard etc)


System Software

Instructions that prepare a computer to do a task, indicate how to interact with a user, and specify how to process data.

All Operating Systems (Win 95, 98, 2000, XP’s, Mac OS

Application Software

All Programs that interact with the user (MSWord, Excell, PowerPoint etc)

Programming Software

For Developers Use (C, C++, Java VB etc)

Human - Computer Interactions

User Application Software System Software Hardware TIHE Students MS Word, Excel, Database etc.

All System Software (OS) Window 95, 98, 2000, XP, Mac OS Physical Parts of the Computer

Drive & Driver


– Drive Pays Areas with in a Computer system unit that can accommodate additional storage device.


– Set of instructions that interact with the Hardware

Memories and Data Storage

1. Main Memory, Ram

Temporary, Volatile, Limited, MB, GB

2. Other Memory Storage

Some Temporary (Cache Memory) Some permanent (ROM), Small Capacity

3. Secondary Memories

Large Capacity, Permanent, Non Volatile (Floppy Disk, Hard Disk CD’s etc)

What is computer Literacy?

• Having an understanding of what a computer is and how it can be used as a priceless resource.

• Refer to having knowledge and understanding – i.e. having the essential knowledge and understanding of computer technology.

What is computer competency?

• Is applying your skills with computers to meet all your information needs as well as improving your productivity • Having skills

What is an information system?

• Refer to a computer system that collects, stores and processes information, usually within the context of an organization.

Parts of an Information system

• People • Procedure • Software • Hardware • Data.

• These parts need each other in order to be useful

Parts of an Information System

People: Data:

The most important part of an information System are the unprocessed facts Processing Data creates information.

Procedure: Software: Hardware:

Types of Computers

1.Super Computer Fastest and most expensive computer in the world. They can cost upwards of 35 million dollars.

– Used for “computer-intensive” tasks like weather prediction, molecular computing, breaking codes – Problems that requires many calculations with math formulas can be used on a supercomputer – A team of Japanese scientists used the world’s fastest computer to predict weather for the next 100 years for the entire world.

– The fastest supercomputers can do 1 trillion calculations per second

Types of Computers

2.Mainframe : (simply “mainframe”) large and expensive computer that is capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of user generally used by businesses or governments to provide centralized storage, processing and management for large amount of data.

remain the computer of choice in situations where reliability, data security and centralized control are necessary.

Types of Computers

3.Minicomputer: appear in 1968 and describe another computer category smaller, less expensive and less powerful than mainframes.

provide adequate computing power for small businesses.

Types of Computers


Microcomputers appeared in 1971 can easily differentiate from other computer category by its CPU – CPU consisted of a single “chip” called microprocessor.

What is a Personal Computer (PC)?

• Is a type of microcomputer, designed to meet the computing needs of an individual.

• Typically provides access to a wide variety of computing applications

Data & Information

• Is there Different between data and information?

Data: the symbols that represent people, events, things and ideas -i.e. raw facts.

Information: when data is presented in a format that people can understand and use.

Computers store data in a


format as a

series of 1’s and 0’s

. Each 1 or 0 is called a


. Eight bits is called a


which is used to represent one character – a letter, number or punctuation mark.

• •

File & Files

• Computer file usually referred to simply as a file – which is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium such as hard disk etc.

A data

file might contain the text for a document, the number for a calculation, specification for a graph, frames for a video etc

Executable File

: contains the programs or instructions that tell the computer how to perform a specific task.] •

Filename extension

: usually referred to simply as an extension which tells what’s in a file. (.txt, .doc .exe etc)

• History • Timeline • Basic Info