Card Stacking - Kyrene School District
Card Stacking - Kyrene School District
Whose Voice Guides
What is propaganda?
Propaganda is a specific type of message
presentation aimed at serving a particular
It means to propagate (actively spread) a
philosophy or point of view (which may be
true but often is not).
The most common use of the term
(historically) is in political contexts; in
particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored
by governments or political groups.
The aim of propaganda is to influence people's
opinions actively, rather than to merely
communicate the facts about something.
Propaganda always has a bias!
Using words OR images that
evoke strong feeling for or
McDonalds and Emotional
The idea that only
the richest, smartest
or most important
people are using the
Snob Appeal Examples:
Emerald Nuts Commercial
Macy’s Justin Beiber
When a transfer is
made by a well known
celebrity that claims to
have used the product.
To feel accepted or
respected people often
want to be a part of
something. If everyone
is doing it, thinking it or
wanting it, you should
The bandwagon approach appeals
to the conformist in all of us. No one
wants to be left out of what is
perceived to be a popular trend.
McDonalds brags they have
sold to billions of customers…
and so does Coca-Cola.
And so does iTunes…
Jumping to a general conclusion about
members of a group based upon just
a few examples that sometimes do not
show the majority.
For example: All men are poor drivers
This conclusion is drawn after seeing only a few drivers
Is the example a HASTY generalization? If so, why?
All plumbers are brilliant. I know a plumber who can
calculate Pi to the 289,954th digit.
All plumbers are rich. I just went to the international
plumbers convention and studied 3,000 plumbers
there. They all made over $100,000 a year.
My mom teaches people well. Whenever she explains
something to me, I understand it perfectly.
Some plumbers are brilliant. I'm a
plumber, and I know I'm brilliant.
Everything by Charles Dickens is boring. I have read all his
novels, and they all put me to sleep.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
Latin for: “after this, therefore because of
Because one thing follows another, it is claimed that the
first thing is the reason for the second.
Whenever the republicans get elected
There is a war.
I had been doing pretty poorly this season. Then
my girlfriend gave me these neon laces for my
spikes and I won my next three races. Those laces
must be good luck...if I keep on wearing them I
can't help but win!
Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting
her friend. Two days later she comes
down with a fever. Joan concludes that
the cat's scratch must be the cause of her
Jane gets a rather large wart on her
finger. Based on a story her father told
her, she cuts a potato in half, rubs it on
the wart and buries it under the light of
a full moon. Over the next month her
wart shrinks and eventually vanishes.
Jane writes her father to tell him how
right he was about the cure.
Plain Folks Appeal
Appeals to people like
you and me- the
Uses ordinary language and
mannerisms in attempting to
identify the brand or product point
of view with that of the average
Who is this?
What about this?
Can this be plain folks?
Uses attractive, but
vague words that
make speeches and
other forms of
sound good. Glittering
generalities usually say
Using alliterations and
metaphors help words into
poetry that flows and rhymes in
hypnotic patterns for the
audience to eat up!.
Use of words that appeal to
values, and powerful
Glittering generalities are often times intangible nouns that embody ideals, such as
dignity, freedom, fame, integrity, justice, love and respect.
“As Americans, we can take enormous pride in the
fact that courage has been inspired by our own
struggle for freedom, by the tradition of
example… democratic law secured by our forefathers and
enshrined in our Constitution. It is a tradition that
says all men are created equal under the law and
that no one is above it." -- Barack Obama
do you see
Shows the product’s best features,
tells half-truths, and omits or lies
about potential problems.
Manipulates audience perception of
an issue by emphasizing one side
and repressing another
For example: Card stacking can
happen by creating media events
that emphasize a certain view,
using one-sided opinions
or by making sure critics are not
If someone you admire
is speaking highly of a
product you will think
highly of that product
This can be done with symbols like a flag,
Uncle Sam, or a cross.
Positive Transfer can also be done by people you trust, like adults,
parents, doctors, teachers or any expert in the field.
On TV commercials, actors
in white lab coats tell us
that Brand X cold
medicine is better than
Or this car mechanic will say that only
Auto Zone can change your tires with
How should I respond to the purpose of an
..questions to ask yourself…
What action do the creators
of the ad hope the viewer,
listener or reader will take?
gain by it?
Why was the form
chosen by the
creators to get