Transcript Slide 1

Psy 622: Cross-Cultural
Daryl M. Rowe, Ph.D.
Pepperdine University
Graduate School of Education & Psychology
Ethical Standards: Purpose,
History & Codes
Ethical Issues: Introduction
Rationale: Since clinical psychology is a human
service activity, our capacity to initiate change is
contingent on the public’s sanctioning of the
efficacy of our influence.
When we undermine the social sanctioning, we
diminish our effectiveness.
Ethical guidelines help insure that psychologists
do not violate the public’s trust; they insure
accountability to behave responsibly
Developing Ethical Attitudes
 Requires that we see ethical behavior as
ongoing concerns requiring deliberation
and reflection
 Requires clarity concerning values
 Requires responsible actions
 Tennyson & Strom (1986) discuss two levels
 Mandatory ethics
 Aspirational ethics
 Mabe & Rollin (1986) suggest Codes tend to
be conservative by nature
History of APA’s Standards
First published in 1953
– began to
examples of good, bad
and questionable
professional behavior
and distilled them into a
code of standards for
professional behavior
Revised in 1958
Revised again in 1963
Revised again in 1968
Revised again in 1977
 Review preamble
 9 principles:
competence; moral &
legal standards;
public statements;
confidentiality; welfare
of consumer;
utilization of
techniques; and
pursuit of research
History of APA’s Standards
Revised again in 1979
Revised again in 1981
Revised again in 1990
Revised again in 1992
 Major restructuring of
the Principles;
consisted of 4
elements –
preamble; general
principles; and ethical
standards (review
 Set forth the scope & limits
of the Code
 Delineated guiding
philosophy for
professional behavior of
 Set forth aspirational goals
for psychologists
 Competence
 Integrity
 Professional/Scientific
 Respect for People’s
Rights & Dignity
 Concern for others’
 Social Responsibility
Current APA Principles (2002)
 Introduction/applicability – review
 Preamble – review changes
 General Principles – aspirational
principles have been eased; one fewer
principle included; expectations are not
as high as in 1992
 Ethical Standards – emphasis on ethical
Current APA Principles (2002)
 Introduction & Applicability
 “Ensure applicability across the
broad range of activities conducted
by psychologists”
 Preamble
 “Psychologists respect and protect
civil and human rights”
APA Principles (2002) (cont.)
 Principle A: Beneficence and
 “Because psychologists’ scientific and
professional judgments and actions ay
affect the lives of others, they are alert to
and guard against personal, financial,
social, organizational, and political
factors that might lead to misuse of their
APA Code of Ethics (2002):
Selected principles and standards relevant to
working with culturally diverse groups
 Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility
 Psychologists consult with, refer to, or
cooperate with other professionals and
institutions to the extent needed to serve
the best interests of those with whom they
 Principle C: Integrity
 Psychologists seek to promote accuracy,
honesty and truthfulness in the science,
teaching and practice of psychology
Selected principles and standards relevant to
working with culturally diverse groups (cont.)
 Principle D: Justice
 Psychologists recognize that fairness and
justice entitle all persons to access to and
benefit from the contributions of psychology
and to equal quality in the processes,
procedures, and services being conducted by
psychologists. Psychologists exercise
reasonable judgment and take precautions to
ensure that their potential biases, the
boundaries of their competence, and the
limitations of their expertise do not lead to or
condone unjust practices.
Selected principles and standards relevant to
working with culturally diverse groups (cont.)
 Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity
 Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people,
and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and
 Psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual,
and role differences, including those based on age, gender,
gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin,
religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and
socioeconomic status and consider these factors when
working with members of such groups.
 Psychologists try to eliminate the effect on their work of
biases based on those factors, and they do not knowingly
participate in or condone activities of others based upon
such prejudices.
AAMFT Code of Ethics (2001)
Principle 1.1
“Marriage and family therapists
provide professional assistance to
persons without discrimination on
the basis on race, age, ethnicity,
socioeconomic status, disability,
gender, health status, religion,
national origin, or sexual
AAMFT Code of Ethics (2001)
Principle 3.8
Marriage and family therapists do not
engage in sexual or other forms of
harassment of clients, students, trainees,
supervisees, employees, colleagues, or
research subjects.
Principle 3.11
Marriage and family therapists do not
diagnose, treat, or advise on problems
outside the recognized boundaries of their
California Association of Marriage &
Family Therapists: Ethical Standards
o The practice of marriage, and family
therapy and psychotherapy is both an art
and a science. It is varied and often
complex in its approach, technique,
modality and method of service delivery.
These ethical standards are to be read,
understood, and utilized as a guide for
ethical behavior.
Introduction (cont.)
o The general principles contained in this
code of conduct are also used as a basis
for the adjudication of ethical issues
and/or complaints (both within and
outside of CAMFT) that may arise. Ethical
behavior, in a given situation, must
satisfy not only the judgment of the
individual marriage and family therapist,
but also the judgment of his/her peers,
based upon a set of recognized norms.
CAAMFT Ethical Standards
Responsibility to Patients
Professional Competence and Integrity
Responsibility to Students and Supervisees
Responsibility to Colleagues
Responsibility to Research Participants
Responsibility to the Profession
Responsibility to the Legal System
Financial Arrangements
CAAMFT Ethical Standards &
1977 APA Ethical Standards
Responsibility to Patients
Professional Competence and
Responsibility to Students and
Responsibility to Colleagues
Responsibility to Research
Responsibility to the
Responsibility to the Legal
Financial Arrangements
Moral & Legal Standards
Public Statements
Welfare of the Consumer
Professional Relationships
Utilization of Assessment
 Pursuit of Research
Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to
Ethnic, Linguistic and Culturally Diverse Populations
(1993) - 9 Aspirational Guidelines
Educate clients to processes of psychological interventions
Aware of research/practice relevant to populations served
Recognize ethnicity/culture are significant in understanding
psychological processes
Respect roles of family members, community structures, and
Respect religious/spiritual beliefs
Interact in preferred language of client or refer
Consider social, environmental, political factors in
Work to eliminate biases, prejudices, discriminatory
Document cultural/sociopolitical factors in case records
American Psychologist (1993)
48(1), pp. 45-48
Other Aspirational Ethical Guidelines
 Guidelines on Multicultural
Education, Training, Research,
Practice and Organizational
Change for Psychologists (2002)
 Asian American Psychological
 Association of Black Psychologists
 National Latino/a Psychological
 Society of Indian Psychologists
Ethical Dilemmas
 Helms & Cook (1999) identify a
number of dilemmas, which they call
“questions”, that may surface in
working with persons from various
socio-cultural backgrounds. Although
these issues are specifically
discussed from an ethical standpoint,
there are potential ethical issues
involved in each of their dilemmas.
 See Handout
Mental Health:
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity
 The Surgeon General’s landmark report Mental
Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999)
documented that effective treatments exist for
mental illness but are not equally available to all
 Mental Health: Culture Race, and Ethnicity – A
supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the
Surgeon General was requested by the Surgeon
General and developed by SAMHSA (Substance
Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)
and CMHS (Center for Mental Health Services) in
consultation with NIMH (National Institute of Mental
Health) and NIH (National Institutes of Health)
 Public health approach; disparities in mental health
and mental health services are defined as a public
health concern
Mental Health:
Culture, Race, & Ethnicity
 Major findings/conclusions:
 Americans do not share equally in the best
that the mental health profession has to
 There is inadequate research base on
racial/ethnic minority mental health
 Persons of color have less access to, lower
utilization rates, and receive poorer quality
mental health services
Major Findings (cont.)
 Therefore, unmet mental health needs
exert a greater disability burden for
individuals, families, and communities of
 Prevention of mental illness and promotion
of mental health are recommended (vs. our
heavy emphasis on treating disorders once
they develop)
 Rates of mental illness are not significantly
different between whites and persons of