1 - An introduction to the RAPID Framework and the ILRI

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Transcript 1 - An introduction to the RAPID Framework and the ILRI

ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Can ILRI hope to influence
pro-poor policy change
through research?
John Young, ODI, UK
Dannie Romney, ILRI, Kenya
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Outline
• The research-policy nexus: Current theory
and practice (John Young, ODI)
• Process and partnership for pro-poor policy
change (Dannie Romney, ILRI)
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Definitions
• Research: “any systematic effort to increase the
stock of knowledge”
• Policy: a “purposive course of action followed by an
actor or set of actors”
– Agendas / policy horizons
– Official statements documents
– Patterns of spending
– Implementation processes
– Activities on the ground
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Policy Processes
- Identify a policy problem
- Commission research
- Assess the results
- Select the best policy
- Establish the policy framework
- Implement the policy
- The problem is solved
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Reality…
• “The whole life of policy is a chaos of purposes
and accidents. It is not at all a matter of the rational
implementation of the so-called decisions through
selected strategies 1”
• “Most policy research on African agriculture is
irrelevant to agricultural and overall economic
policy in Africa2”
1
- Clay & Schaffer (1984), Room for Manoeuvre; An Exploration of Public Policy in
Agricultural and Rural Development, Heineman Educational Books, London
2 – Omamo (2003), Policy Research on African Agriculture: Trends, Gaps, and Challenges,
International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) Research Report No 21
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Existing theory
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Linear model
Percolation model, Weiss
Tipping point model, Gladwell
‘Context, evidence, links’ framework, ODI
Policy narratives, Roe
Systems model (NSI)
External forces, Lindquist
‘Room for manoeuvre’, Clay & Schaffer
‘Street level bureaucrats’, Lipsky
Policy as social experiments, Rondinelli
Policy Streams & Windows, Kingdon
Disjointed incrementalism, Lindquist
The ‘tipping point’, Gladwell
Crisis model, Kuhn
‘Framework of possible thought’,
Chomsky
16. Variables for Credibility, Beach
17. The source is as important as content,
Gladwell
18. Linear model of communication, Shannon
19. Interactive model,
20. Simple and surprising stories,
Communication Theory
21. Provide solutions, Marketing Theory I
22. Find the right packaging, Marketing II
23. Elicit a response, Kottler
24. Translation of technology, Volkow
25. Epistemic communities
26. Policy communities
27. Advocacy coalitions etc, Pross
28. Negotiation through networks, Sebattier
29. Shadow networks, Klickert
30. Chains of accountability, Fine
31. Communication for social change,
Rockefeller
32. Wheels and webs, Chapman & Fisher
www.odi.org.uk/rapid/lessons/theory
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Existing theory – a short list
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Policy narratives, Roe
Systems of Innovation Model, (NSI)
‘Room for manoeuvre’, Clay & Schaffer
‘Street level bureaucrats’, Lipsky
Policy as social experiments, Rondene
Policy streams and policy windows, Kingdon
Disjointed Incrementalism, Lindblom
Social Epidemics, Gladwell
• The RAPID Framework
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
An Analytical Framework
External Influences
Socio-economic and
cultural influences,
donor policies etc
The links between policy
and research communities –
networks, relationships, power,
competing discourses, trust,
knowledge etc.
The political context –
political and economic structures
and processes, culture, institutional
pressures, incremental vs radical
change etc.
The evidence – credibility, the
degree it challenges received
wisdom, research approaches
and methodology, simplicity of
the message, how it is packaged
etc
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Case Studies
• Sustainable Livelihoods: The
Evolution of DFID Policy
• The PRSP Initiative: Research in
Multilateral Policy Change
• The adoption of Ethical
Principles in Humanitarian Aid
post Rwanda
• Animal Health Care in Kenya:
Evidence fails to influence Policy
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
A Practical Framework
External Influences
Politics and
Policymaking
Campaigning,
Lobbying
Scientific
information
exchange &
validation
political context
Media,
Advocacy,
Networking
links
Policy analysis, &
research
Research,
learning &
thinking
evidence
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
What you need to know
• The external environment: Who are the key actors?
What is their agenda? How do they influence the political
context?
• The political context: Is there political interest in
change? Is there room for manoeuvre? How do they
perceive the problem?
• The evidence: Is it there? Is it relevant? Is it practically
useful? Are the concepts familiar or new? Does it need repackaging?
• Links: Who are the key individuals? Are there existing
networks to use? How best to transfer the information? The
media? Campaigns?
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
What researchers need to do
What researchers
need to know
What researchers
need to do
Political Context:
• Get to know the policymakers. • Work with them – seek
commissions
• Identify friends and foes.
• Strategic opportunism –
• Prepare for policy
prepare for known events
opportunities.
+ resources for others
• Look out for policy windows.
• Who are the policymakers?
• Is there demand for ideas?
• What is the policy process?
Evidence
• What is the current theory?
• What are the narratives?
• How divergent is it?
Links
• Who are the stakeholders?
• What networks exist?
• Who are the connectors,
mavens and salesmen?
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Establish credibility
Provide practical solutions
Establish legitimacy.
Present clear options
Use familiar narratives.
• Get to know the others
• Work through existing
networks.
• Build coalitions.
• Build new policy networks.
How to do it
• Build a reputation
• Action-research
• Pilot projects to generate
legitimacy
• Good communication
• Build partnerships.
• Identify key networkers,
mavens and salesmen.
• Use informal contacts
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Policy entrepreneurs
Storytellers
Engineers
Networkers
Fixers
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Practical Tools
Overarching Tools
- The RAPID Framework
- Using the Framework
- The Entrepreneurship
Questionnaire
Communication Tools
- Communications Strategy
- SWOT analysis
- Message Design
- Making use of the media
Policy Influence Tools
- Influence Mapping & Power Mapping
- Lobbying and Advocacy
- Campaigning: A Simple Guide
- Competency self-assessment
Context Assessment Tools
- Stakeholder Analysis
- Forcefield Analysis
- Writeshops
- Policy Mapping
- Political Context Mapping
Research Tools
- Case Studies
- Episode Studies
- Surveys
- Bibliometric Analysis
- Focus Group Discussion
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Practical Application
• Within ODI
• Workshops for researchers, policy makers
and activists.
• Advice to a DFID forest/ground water
research project in India:
– Less research
– More communication
– Developing champions in regional and national
government
– Local, Regional & National advocacy campaign
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Further Information / Resources
• ODI Working Papers
• Bridging Research and
Policy Book
• Meeting series
Monograph
• Tools for Policy Impact
• RAPID Briefing Paper
• www.odi.org.uk/rapid
ILRI
Process and Partnership for
Pro-Poor Policy Change
Can ILRI do it?
Yes, but:
• It this its role?
• “Global Public Good” Research vs Policy Advocacy
• Probably needs to do both:
How?
• Understand the political context
• Get the evidence & package it well
• Strategic networking / lobbying / campaigning
• Collaboration….
ILRI
International Livestock Research Institute
Process and partnership for
pro-poor policy change
The New DfID funded Project
ILRI
International Livestock Research Institute
• Project Leaders: ODI / ILRI
• Key collaborators: ECAPAPA
• Case study collaborators in Kenya:
– MoLFD / KARI
– Range of NGOs & other SDP partners
ILRI
Why would I be interested?
International Livestock Research Institute
• Not all research is expected or intended to lead
to policy change, but there may be;
– Specific cases where research is expected to;
• provide evidence for policy change
• identify potential policies (or impact of)
• influence the policy making process
(advocacy)
– Cases where speculative research becomes
relevant because of changes in circumstance
ILRI
The project …
International Livestock Research Institute
• Ideas for methods and approaches
• Lessons learnt from earlier activities
• Identification of appropriate communication
tools
ILRI
What will we be doing?
International Livestock Research Institute
•
Three case studies in three DIFFERENT
countries
– A project considered to have influenced
policy change
– A stream of research addressing a particular
policy area
– A clear policy change;
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New policy statement
New law
Irrefutable change in way something is done
ILRI
What will we be doing?
International Livestock Research Institute
•
Three case studies
– SDP and impact on changed view of
informal milk trade
– ????
– ????
ILRI
International Livestock Research Institute
• Discussion:
– Can ILRI hope to influence pro-poor policy
through research?
– Any good case studies?