Civil Engineering Management B

download report

Transcript Civil Engineering Management B

Heath, Safety and Risk Management in
Construction
By Dave Allen and Paul Whitehead – licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non-Commercial –
Share Alike License
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/
Introduction to Health, Safety
and Risk Management
in Construction
Section 4: Risk Assessment
Risk Assessment
• A careful examination of what could cause harm to
people, so that you can weigh up whether you have
taken enough precautions
• The aim is to ensure no one gets hurt.
• It is a legal requirement for existing legislation
• Written record required if five or more employees
What is a hazard?
Definition: An activity, substance or process with the
potential to cause harm
Categories include
• Mechanical - moving parts on machinery
• Chemical – hazardous substances COSHH
• Physical – slips, trips and falls, moving objects
• Biological – e.g. Leptospirosis
• Ergonomic – poor seating and workstation design
• Manual Handling hazards – lifting etc
• Electricity – 1000 incidents a year, 30 fatalities
• Stress – to much or to little to do, poor relationships etc
What is Risk?
Definition: The likelihood of an substance, activity or process to
cause harm.
Therefore Risk = severity of harm x probability
Examples:
Electricity is a hazard, whereas an associated risk is
electrocution.
Working over water is a hazard, whereas an associated risk is
drowning
The legal position
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
“General duty to ensure health, safety and welfare at
work of all employees so far as reasonably practicable”
5 Steps to Risk Assessment
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf
1. Look for and list the
hazards
2. Decide who might be
harmed and how
3. Evaluate risks
4. Record the findings
5. Monitor and Review when
necessary
Step 1: Identify hazards
Walk around the workplace and look at what can cause you harm.
Concentrate on significant hazards
Some sources of information:
• Ask employees
• Use manufacturers instructions
• Refer to accident / incident book
• Reports of near misses or close shaves
Step 2: Decide who can be harmed
Consider
• Employees in particular the new and young, new or expectant
mothers, disabled
• Cleaners, visitors, maintenance workers
• Public
• Other employees not associated with the task
Step 3: Evaluate the Risk
• Minimise risks
– Can I get rid of the hazard altogether
– Control the risk so that harm is unlikely
• When Controlling risk follow ‘Principles of Prevention’
• Consider likelihood
• Even after all precautions have been taken there is still
residual risk
• For each significant hazard classify the residual risk as high,
medium or low
• Make sure that you do everything that the law requires
• Are there industry standards?
Principles of Prevention
In the following order:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
avoiding risks;
evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided;
combating the risks at source;
adapting the work to the individual, especially as regards the design of
workplaces, the choice of work equipment and the choice of working and
production methods, with a view, in particular, to alleviating monotonous
work and work at a predetermined work-rate and to reducing their effect
on health;
adapting to technical progress;
replacing the dangerous by the non-dangerous or the less dangerous;
developing a coherent overall prevention policy which covers technology,
organisation of work, working conditions, social relationships and the
influence of factors relating to the working environment;
giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective
measures; and
giving appropriate instructions to employees.
Step 4: Record significant findings
If there are five or more employees then significant findings of
your assessment and your conclusions must be recorded
Remember that you must be able to prove a proper check was
made:
– taking into account the significant hazards, people affected
and precautions are reasonable and risk low.
– and you've communicated findings to staff (signature)
Step 5: Monitor and Review
Monitor
– Check the conditions remain unchanged, controls are
available adequate and being used.
Review
– Ensure methods still effective
– Bring precautions up-to-date
– Whenever methods or materials change
– When existing assessment ineffective
Example - Carling Cracking Ad
Consider a simple example using this Carling
advert. Watch the advert by clicking on the link
below and identify hazards as you do so.
Source:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATXhTULzD18
Step 1 – Identify Hazards
• E.g. Trip hazards
Example Step 2: Decide who might be harmed
• Both the crab and the man could be injured
Example Step 3: Evaluate Risks
For each risk use the risk matrix chart to evaluate.
Probability
RISK MATRIX CHART
Almost certain
M
H
H
Likely
L
M
H
Improbable
L
L
M
NegligableModerate Very high
Severity
KEY
Low
Medium
High
• For low risk activities no specific action is required
• For medium risk activities apply measures to reduce risk to
acceptable levels
• Consider alternative measures for high risk activities
For our example without controls - inherent
risk
Probability
RISK MATRIX CHART
Almost certain
Likely
Improbable
Negligable Moderate Very high
Severity
TASK
Repair fridge to cool beer
IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
Tripping
Low
KEY
Risk Ranking from chart
Low
Medium
High
X
Further action required
Medium
High
What is a method statement?
The method of control that is used after a risk assessment is
carried out for high risk construction activities
For a particular section of work they detail:
• the order and method of construction
• its boundaries
• resources / PPE required
• temporary works design
• quality requirements
Who produces them and their format
For construction activities they are usually:
• written by engineers doing the work
• submitted to resident engineer prior to work commencing
Suggested headings are:
• Description of the works
• Work Sequence
• Resources
• Assessment of significant risks and control measures
• Personal and Protective Equipment
Example - Back to the advert
Hazard - tripping
Method
• Clear up
• Ensure excess materials are stored in clearly defined
areas
• Make people aware of the site requirements with regard
to storage, clearing up, tidiness etc. - brief the crab
For our example with controls -residual risk
Probability
RISK MATRIX CHART
Method
•Clear up
•Ensure materials are stored in clearly defined
areas
• make people aware of the site requirements
with regard to cleanliness etc.
Almost certain
Likely
Improbable
Negligable Moderate Very high
Severity
Low
KEY
TASK
Repair fridge to cool beer
IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
Tripping
Risk Ranking from chart
Low
X
Medium
High
X
Further action required
Medium
High
The risk and method statement!
TASK
Repair fridge to cool beer
IDENTIFIED HAZARDS/RISK
Initial Risk Ranking
Low
Medium
High
Sun/Sunstroke, heatstroke
x
Debris/Tripping
x
Manual handling/Musclar Skeletal Disorders
x
x
x
Unguarded machinery/Traps, impacts,
contact, ejections entanglement etc.
Fire/burns
x
x
Electricity/Electric Shock
Residual Risk Ranking
Low
Medium
High
x
x
x
x
x
METHOD STATEMENT
Further action required
Avoid working during the hottest part of the day
Clear up
Ensure excess materials are stored in clearly defined areas
Make people aware of the site requirements with regard to storage, clearing up, tidiness etc
Access will be strictly controlled to areas where there are live installations
Warning signs will be displayed
Operatives to be trained in manual handling techniques
Mechanical / hydraulic lifters or trucks must be used when ever practical
Machinery to be adequately guarded prior to use
Personnel trained, competent and authorised to use machinery
Appropriate fire fighting equipment will be located adjacent to the fire
Escape routes will be defined and kept clear at all times
PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
Find some sun cream apply at regular intervals
Ensure head is covered
Wear appropriate PPE for electrical work rated for the energy levels involved
Gloves
Safety boots
That’s the health and safety…
. . . but is this enough to describe the process?
Now undertake the following detailed case study
Make sure that you use the headings suggested on Slide 19 and
assess the significant using a risk matrix and following the five
steps to risk assessment.
Solution included in the appropriate section of the notes
Detailed case study
You are required to lay a service cable 0.75m deep, protected by a plastic
duct, across Clay Pit Lane from the Yorkshire Bank to Queens Square
House. It is proposed that each lane is in turn coned off while 2
operatives use a mini excavator to excavate, lay and refill the trench.
Concrete and bituminous materials will be delivered by a truck to site.
SITE CONTROL
Traffic signs manual
chapter 8 and signage
SERVICES
EQUIPMENT
Existing services
Existing services marked