Daily Planning for Today’s Mathematics Classroom

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Transcript Daily Planning for Today’s Mathematics Classroom

Daily Planning for Today’s
Mathematics Classroom
Math 413
Professor Mitchell
Concepts taken from Daily Planning for
Today’s Classroom by Kay M. Price and
Karna L. Nelson
1
Introduction
• An effective lesson plan begins with a
relevant clearly written objective.
2
Definition and Purpose
• An objective is a description of a learning
outcome.
• Objectives describe where we want students to
go – not how they will get there.
• Well written objectives clarify what teachers
want their students to learn, help provide lesson
focus and direction, and help guide the selection
of appropriate practice.
3
State and National Standards: A
Source of Objectives
• http://www.nctm.org
4
Example of a State Standard
Content Standard#1 Grade 4
• Use models, benchmarks and equivalent
forms to judge the size of fractions (in
relation to ½,1/4, ¾ and the whole and
decimals in situations relevant to
students’)
5
Number and Operations Standard
for Grades 3-5 Expectations
Example of the NCTM Standard
• In grades 3-5 all students shouldUse models, benchmarks, and equivalent
forms to judge the size of fractions
•
Recognize and generate equivalent forms
of commonly used fractions, decimals and
percents
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From General to Specific: Going
from State Standards to
Objectives
• While state and national standards provide
general content ideas, teachers are responsible
for writing their own objectives for their lessons,
activities and units.
• A teacher’s job is to translate the standards into
useful objectives that are used to guide
instruction.
• The learning outcomes included in the
objectives will then be linked to the state
standards.
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How standards, goals, and
objectives differ…
• Specific –Objectives include specific learning
outcomes where standards include general
outcome statements.
• Goals may be general, for example, understand
the concept of fractions.
• Long-Term or Short Term –Objectives are
considered short term, they describe the
learning outcome typically in days, or weeks.
• Goals and standards describe learning
outcomes that may be in weeks, months or
years.
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How standards, goals, and
objectives differ…
• Uses – Objectives are used in lesson and
activity plans and IEPs.
• Measurable annual goals are included in
IEPs.
• Goals may also be found in units of
instruction. For example, a goal may be to
understand how to add fractions.
• A specific objective may be to be able to
add fractions will common denominators.
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Examples of Goals and
Objectives Related to State
Standards
• Students will write answers to 20
subtraction problems (two-digit numbers
from three-digit numbers with re-grouping)
on a worksheet, with two errors.
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The Four Components of an
Objective
• Content- In the example given the content
is subtraction problems (two-digit
numbers from three-digit numbers with
re-grouping)
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Behavior
• Behavior- the behavior tells what the
students will do to show that they have
learned.
• It is a verb that describes an observable
action. In this example the behavior is
“write”. The student will demonstrate
knowledge of subtraction by writing the
answers to the 20 problems. (See Bloom)
12
Condition
• Condition-It is important to describe the
conditions or circumstances under which
the student will perform the behavior.
• In the example objective, the condition is
“on a worksheet” not in a real world
context.
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Criterion
• Criterion-The criterion is the level of
acceptance performance, the standard of
mastery of proficiency level expected.
• In the objective above, the criterion is with
two errors.
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Examples and Nonexamples of
Content
• Add unlike fractions with common factors
between denominators
• ________________________________
• Add fractions on page 42, 1 to 7
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Examples and Nonexamples of
Behavior
• Diagram, operate, order, compare/contrast
• _________________________________
• Know, understand, memorize, learn
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Examples and Nonexamples of
Conditions
• Given ten problems and a calculator
• __________________________________
• Given a blank piece of paper, when asked
by the teacher (obvious)
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Examples and Nonexamples of
Criterion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
With no errors
With 80 percent accuracy
Within 10 minutes
To the nearest tenth
__________________________
As judged by the teacher
To the teacher’s satisfaction
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A Final Thought
• It is very important to begin your lesson or activity with a
clear idea of what you want your students to learn.
• Writing a specific objective with the four components
will cause you to think this through.
• When teachers experience frustration with a particular
lesson, they often have not stated a measurable
objective.
• If you clearly state the objective, you will know if your
activity or lesson and your intended learning outcome
match. You will be able to tell if your teaching was
effective and whether your students learned.
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