Disorders of the Endocrine System

download report

Transcript Disorders of the Endocrine System

Disorders of the Endocrine
System
Thyroid Gland
Hormone: Thyroxin
Overactivity (Too much hormone)
- Increased metabolic rate
- Increased food intake but loss of weight
- Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)
- Goiter (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes)
Goiter
Thyroid Gland
Hormone: Thyroxin
Underactivity (Not enough hormone)
-
Hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease)
Reduced metabolic rate
Low food intake but gain of weight
Myxoedema (when onset in adults)
Cretinism (when onset in children)
Can also cause a goiter
Myxoedema
•
•
•
•
•
•
Puffiness (swelling)
Fatigue
Obesity
Dry, thickened skin
Mental impairment
Thin, brittle hair
Cretinism
•
•
•
•
Protuberant abdomen
Short Stature
Infertility
Neurological
impairment
• Constant Fatigue
• Obesity
Thyroid Gland
Hormone: Calcitonin
Overactivity
- Increased Bone Ca, decreased Blood Ca
- Tetany (nerve problems leading to muscle spasms or
cramps)
Underactivity
- Increase Blood Ca, decreased Bone Ca
- Osteoporosis (brittle bones)
- Kidney stones
Parathyroid Glands
Hormone: Parathormone (PTH)
Underactivity
- Low Blood calcium, High Bone Ca
- Tetany
Overactivity
- High Blood calcium, Low Bone Ca
- Osteoporosis
Pancreas
Hormone: Insulin
Overactivity
- Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)
- Hypoglycemia
Underactivity
- High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)
- Hyperglycemia
- Diabetes
Pancreas
Hormone: Glucagon
Overactivity
- High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)
- Diabetes
Underactivity
- Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)
- Hyper insulinism
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Hormone: Growth Hormone
Overactive
- Gigantism (children - very tall)
- Acromegaly (adults - bones & skin thicken)
Underactive
- Dwarfism (very short)
Gigantism
The man holding
the baby in the
photo is 8 ft, 2.5
inches tall
Acromegaly
Dwarfism
Dwarfism occurs
when there is short
supply of GH in
childhood. There
are two types of
dwarfism – Lorrain
and Frohlich’s
Thyroxin – increases metabolic rate
Overactive
• Goiter
• Hyperthyroidism
• Grave’s Disease
Underactive
• Goiter
• Hypothyroidism
• Hashimoto’s Disease
• Myxoedema (adults)
• Cretinism (kids)
Calcitonin – Increase Ca uptake by
bones and decrease Ca level in blood
Overactive
• Tetany
Underactive
• Kidney Stones
• Osteoporosis
Parathormone (PTH) – inc. Ca
level in blood, dec. Ca level in bone
Overactive
• Kidney Stones
• Osteoporosis
Underactive
• Tetany
Insulin – dec. blood sugar levels
Overactive
• Hypoglycemia
• Hyperinsulinism
(insulin shock)
Underactive
• Hyperglycemia
• Diabetes
Calcitonin Vs. Parathormone
Calcitonin –
Over Reactivity
Blood Ca
Tetany
Under Reactivity
Blood Ca
Parathormone Blood Ca
•Osteoporosis
•Kidney Stones
Blood Ca
Blood Ca
•Osteoporosis
•Kidney Stones
Tetany
Blood Ca
Glucagon – inc. blood sugar levels
Overactive
• Hyperglycemia
• Diabetes
Underactive
• Hypoglycemia
• Hyperinsulinism
Insulin vs Glucagon
Insulin –
Over Reactivity
BSL
BSL
Hypoglycemia
Under Reactivity
BSL
•Hyperglycemia
•Diabetes
Glucagon -
BSL
BSL
•Hyperglycemia
•Diabetes
BSL
Hypoglycemia
GH - Growth Hormone – increases
bone growth
Overactive
• Gigantism (children)
• Acromegaly (adults)
Underactive
• Dwarfism (Frohlich’s
and Lorrain)
MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating
Hormone – causes color cells
(melanocytes) in skin to darken
Overactive
• Skin darkens
Under active
• Skin will not darken
• Most severe condition
is albinism
LH, FSH, ICTH – sex hormones in
males and females that aid in
sperm or egg (gamete) production
Overactive
• Unknown
Underactive
• Sterility
Corticoid imbalances:
ADDISON’S DISEASE – RARE
https://www.google.com/search?q=cushing+syndrome+picture&newwindow=1&tbm=isch&imgil
=i4SmlQRCgGCoMM%253A%253BG_ueIwrtnqoQnM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252F
medicineconspectus.blogspot.com%25252F2014%25252F06%25252Fcushing-syndromehypercorticismadrenal.html&source=iu&pf=m&fir=i4SmlQRCgGCoMM%253A%252CG_ueIwrtnqoQnM%252C
_&usg=__RFAxiPerBprh01T7C56wx96irXY%3D&biw=1280&bih=855&ved=0CD0Qyjc&ei=XSw
sVZ3NF5HksAS2yoCYAg#imgrc=i4SmlQRCgGCoMM%253A%3BG_ueIwrtnqoQnM%3Bhttp%
253A%252F%252Fimg.docstoccdn.com%252Fthumb%252Forig%252F77842308.png%3Bhttp
%253A%252F%252Fmedicineconspectus.blogspot.com%252F2014%252F06%252Fcushingsyndrome-hypercorticism-adrenal.html%3B1500%3B1125
http://hardinmd.lib.uiowa.edu/ui/addisons/plate1.html
Corticoids – inc. blood pressure,
inc. food metabolism and dec.
inflammation
Overactive
• Cushing’s Syndrome
Underactive
• Addison’s Disease
• Decreased cortisol
and/or aldosterone
production