HOSA Ch. 6 Nutrition

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Transcript HOSA Ch. 6 Nutrition

Nutrition Outline

Sports med 2

DO YOU KNOW????

    The six classes of nutrients The definition of metabolism Which nutrients provide fuel for energy Two categories of fat

What does food do?

 Satisfies 3 basic needs:   Supplies energy Supports new tissue growth and repair  Helps regulate metabolism  All of these needs require NUTRIENTS!!!

Guidelines for a healthy diet

 Eat a variety of foods from each food group 

Eat in moderation

Can you name the 6 classes of NUTRIENTS?

      CHO (carbohydrate) Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Water

CHO

Defined

: basic source on energy, critical for central nervous system, and optimal performance  During digestion:   Glucose (principle energy source) Stored in liver as glycogen  Excess glucose not converted to glycogen is stored as fat

2 types of CHO

Simple vs Complex

Simple Sugars

   Monosaccharides = single (simple) sugars Fruits, table sugar 3 types   Glucose- most common Fructose  Galactose

Complex CHO

  Polysaccharides- single sugars linking together Starches- breads, cereals, rice, pasta, grains, vegetables  Refined vs Whole Grains  Refined-germ and bran layers are stripped away  Germ-nutrient rich part of grain  Bran- contains most of the fiber and B vitamins  Whole-all 3 parts of the plant are used

Athletes and CHO’s

 Athletes should consume 800 mg of CHO daily 3 days prior to high activity  According to American Dietetic Association (ADA)  Consume 8 oz of 5 % CHO every 15 min during activity

Protein

 Protein : major component of all body tissue required for tissue repair and growth  Not a significant energy source  Made up of amino acids    20 amino acids 9 essential EX: meat, fish, poultry. (complete proteins)

Athletes and Protein

 Takes longer to digest  ALWAYS consider fat to nutrient ratio

Fat

 Fat : lipid, source of energy, vital to growth FUNCTIONS  1 gram = 9 calories  Necessary for healthy hair, growth and skin  Absorption and transportation of fat soluble vitamins

Categories of FAT

 Saturated   Solid at room temp.

Derived from animal sources  Ex: butter, lard  Unsaturated   Liquid at room temp Plant sources  Ex: Corn/canola oil

Fats and Cholesterol

 Cholesterol : white waxy substance found in the blood  Good function:  Some is needed to form cell membranes and sheaths for nerves. BAD Functions  Builds up and deposits on artery walls  Restricts blood flow  Major risk factor of heart disease

Good and Evil Cholesterol

 High Density lipoproteins (HDL)  “good”  Contained in monounsaturated fats (unsaturated)  scrape som of cholesterol from blood stream  Low Density lipoproteins (LDL)  “bad”  May lower amount of HDL in blood stream

Athletes and Fat

  Mostly stored subcutaneous layers Body “hoards” or saves it under skin  Once body realizes the restriction it will start taking lean tissue for nourishment  Fat should contribute no more then 30% of total energy

Fiber

 Dietary Fiber : plant foods that cannot be digested   Soluble fiber  Fruit, vegetables, bran, beans  Helps reduce cholesterol level Insoluble fiber  Wheat bran, whole grains, nuts/seeds   Women = 25 g/day Men = 17 g/day

Athletes and Fiber

  Not part of pre game meal 6 hours before

Vitamins

 Vitamins : organic substance    13 essential No energy Fat Soluble:  ADEK  Water Soluble:  C and B

 A 

Vitamins

Function-helps skin, and promotes resistance to infectious disease  Deficiency-frequent infections, night blindness, dry skin  D  Function- strong bones and teeth  Deficiency-inadequate mineralization of bones  E  Function-prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids  Deficiency-lethargy, anemia, loss of balance and concentration  K  Function-regulation of blood clots  Deficiency-frequent nosebleeds, bruises

 B1 (thiamine) 

B Vitamins

Function-energy release from CHO   Deficiency-confusion, weakness, tachycardia  B2 (riboflavin)  Function-metabolism of CHO, protein, fat  Deficiency-anemia, mouth lesions, dermatitis   B3 (Niacin)   Function-glycolysis, & fat synthesis Deficiency- irritability, depression, anxiety B6  Function metablolism  Deficiency-anemia, nausea, convulsions B12  Function-develop RBC, maintain nervous system  Deficiency-anemia, fatigue, memory loss

Athletes and Vitamins

 Not necessary to take additional supplements if eating a well balanced diet

Minerals

 Minerals: inorganic, essential for body function   Major:   100 mg/day Calcium, phosphorus  Build teeth and bones  Magnesium, sodium, chloride Minor:  Iron  Formation of hemoglobin   Zinc, selenium, copper Iodine  Regulates hormones

Athletes and Minerals

 Calcium intake 800-1200 mg/day  Iron depletion = reduced hemoglobin levels, tiredness.

Water

 Water: principle chemical of the human body  At rest need 2 quarts of fluid each day  Controls temperature. Energy production, elimination of metabolic waste  60 % of body

Athletes and Water

 2 cups of water 2 hours before vigorous activity  15 min before exertion, 2 cups of water