Transcript HOSA Ch. 6 Nutrition
Sports med 2
DO YOU KNOW????
The six classes of nutrients The definition of metabolism Which nutrients provide fuel for energy Two categories of fat
What does food do?
Satisfies 3 basic needs: Supplies energy Supports new tissue growth and repair Helps regulate metabolism All of these needs require NUTRIENTS!!!
Guidelines for a healthy diet
Eat a variety of foods from each food group
Eat in moderation
Can you name the 6 classes of NUTRIENTS?
CHO (carbohydrate) Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Water
: basic source on energy, critical for central nervous system, and optimal performance During digestion: Glucose (principle energy source) Stored in liver as glycogen Excess glucose not converted to glycogen is stored as fat
2 types of CHO
Simple vs Complex
Monosaccharides = single (simple) sugars Fruits, table sugar 3 types Glucose- most common Fructose Galactose
Polysaccharides- single sugars linking together Starches- breads, cereals, rice, pasta, grains, vegetables Refined vs Whole Grains Refined-germ and bran layers are stripped away Germ-nutrient rich part of grain Bran- contains most of the fiber and B vitamins Whole-all 3 parts of the plant are used
Athletes and CHO’s
Athletes should consume 800 mg of CHO daily 3 days prior to high activity According to American Dietetic Association (ADA) Consume 8 oz of 5 % CHO every 15 min during activity
Protein : major component of all body tissue required for tissue repair and growth Not a significant energy source Made up of amino acids 20 amino acids 9 essential EX: meat, fish, poultry. (complete proteins)
Athletes and Protein
Takes longer to digest ALWAYS consider fat to nutrient ratio
Fat : lipid, source of energy, vital to growth FUNCTIONS 1 gram = 9 calories Necessary for healthy hair, growth and skin Absorption and transportation of fat soluble vitamins
Categories of FAT
Saturated Solid at room temp.
Derived from animal sources Ex: butter, lard Unsaturated Liquid at room temp Plant sources Ex: Corn/canola oil
Fats and Cholesterol
Cholesterol : white waxy substance found in the blood Good function: Some is needed to form cell membranes and sheaths for nerves. BAD Functions Builds up and deposits on artery walls Restricts blood flow Major risk factor of heart disease
Good and Evil Cholesterol
High Density lipoproteins (HDL) “good” Contained in monounsaturated fats (unsaturated) scrape som of cholesterol from blood stream Low Density lipoproteins (LDL) “bad” May lower amount of HDL in blood stream
Athletes and Fat
Mostly stored subcutaneous layers Body “hoards” or saves it under skin Once body realizes the restriction it will start taking lean tissue for nourishment Fat should contribute no more then 30% of total energy
Dietary Fiber : plant foods that cannot be digested Soluble fiber Fruit, vegetables, bran, beans Helps reduce cholesterol level Insoluble fiber Wheat bran, whole grains, nuts/seeds Women = 25 g/day Men = 17 g/day
Athletes and Fiber
Not part of pre game meal 6 hours before
Vitamins : organic substance 13 essential No energy Fat Soluble: ADEK Water Soluble: C and B
Function-helps skin, and promotes resistance to infectious disease Deficiency-frequent infections, night blindness, dry skin D Function- strong bones and teeth Deficiency-inadequate mineralization of bones E Function-prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids Deficiency-lethargy, anemia, loss of balance and concentration K Function-regulation of blood clots Deficiency-frequent nosebleeds, bruises
Function-energy release from CHO Deficiency-confusion, weakness, tachycardia B2 (riboflavin) Function-metabolism of CHO, protein, fat Deficiency-anemia, mouth lesions, dermatitis B3 (Niacin) Function-glycolysis, & fat synthesis Deficiency- irritability, depression, anxiety B6 Function metablolism Deficiency-anemia, nausea, convulsions B12 Function-develop RBC, maintain nervous system Deficiency-anemia, fatigue, memory loss
Athletes and Vitamins
Not necessary to take additional supplements if eating a well balanced diet
Minerals: inorganic, essential for body function Major: 100 mg/day Calcium, phosphorus Build teeth and bones Magnesium, sodium, chloride Minor: Iron Formation of hemoglobin Zinc, selenium, copper Iodine Regulates hormones
Athletes and Minerals
Calcium intake 800-1200 mg/day Iron depletion = reduced hemoglobin levels, tiredness.
Water: principle chemical of the human body At rest need 2 quarts of fluid each day Controls temperature. Energy production, elimination of metabolic waste 60 % of body
Athletes and Water
2 cups of water 2 hours before vigorous activity 15 min before exertion, 2 cups of water