(Powerpoint) Assessment for Learning

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Transcript (Powerpoint) Assessment for Learning

Assessment for Learning (AfL)
Unit 3:
Formative Feedback
© PMB 2007
Learning Intentions
• To know what is meant by high quality ‘formative
• To know the steps needed to provide high quality
formative feedback in your classroom
• To understand how formative feedback can impact on
pupils’ learning.
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Activity 1a
Effective Feedback
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What Do We Mean by Formative
‘Feedback to any pupil should be about the particular qualities of his
or her work, with advice on what he or she can do to improve, and
should avoid comparisons with other pupils.’
- Inside the Black Box Black & Wiliam 1998
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Characteristics of Formative Feedback
• Feedback should provide:
evidence on where they
are now
the desired goal
some understanding of how to close the gap
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Timing of Formative Feedback
• Feed back during the learning
• Allow time for improvement
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Activity 1b
Formative Statements
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Why Is it Important?
• Focuses on improvement
• De-emphasises competition
• Improves motivation and learning ambition
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Types of Feedback
Oral Feedback
• During the lesson/activity
• Personal and immediate
• Interactive (two-way)
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Effective Oral Feedback
We Are Learning To:
Success Criterion:
Pupils cut out, order and glue pictures of a story in
Sequence events
The pictures will be in the same order as the story we
You are getting
better at cutting
out. Well done!
Good girl, you have
glued that picture
very neatly
Good strategy, you have cut
out all the pictures first so
you can shuffle them around
and change your mind
Well done. I see you have got
the first picture in place. What
happened next in the story?
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Focusing the Feedback
‘I recognised things in myself like commenting about the handwriting
and spelling, when I should be commenting on the learning
intention. It’s been a real revelation to me. I’m aware of it all the
time now and when I hear myself starting to say “you’ve left a
capital letter out there”, I stop really quickly now and go back to
talking about the learning intention.’
- A teacher from S. Clarke’s research project
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Types of Feedback
Written Feedback
• Tends to be after the task is complete
• Comments only
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Learning from Feedback
• Do you allow time for pupils to read your comments?
• Do you allow time for improvements to be made to the
• Can pupils read/understand your marking comments?
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How Do Pupils Interpret Your Feedback?
• ‘Develop these ideas further…’
- ‘Teachers expect you to know what they mean in comments’ Y10
- ‘It would be good if teachers wrote how you could improve your work more’
• ‘Good work …’
- ‘Good’ doesn’t help much – he’s just saying that it’s not really very good.
I’d like it if he just told the truth.’ P4
- ‘If I get a ‘good’ , I don’t often know what I’ve done good’ Y8
• ‘You must try harder…’
- ‘I get ‘try harder’ a lot, but it doesn’t really help me do any better‘
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A Controversial Question About Marking
Which is most effective in helping learners improve?
• Mark/grade only (e.g. 4/10, B+)
• Mark/grade and comment
• Comment only
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Comment-only Marking Is the Best Way
to Help Learners Improve
Groups of pupils
Improvement in
Interest in Subject
Marks/grades only
+ for high attainers
- for middle/low
Marks/grades +
+ for high attainers
- for middle/low
Comments only
+ for all groups
Research findings, Black & Wiliam,1998
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A Strategy for Written Feedback
• Find 2 successes against the success criteria
• Find the part of the work that has most scope for an
immediate ‘jump’ (not simply the worst part)
• Write a short prompt telling the child exactly what to do
to this part of their work
• Provide time for them to read, process and respond to
your prompt
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Prompts for Improvement
• A reminder prompt: is most suitable for able children.
‘Say more about how you feel about this person.’
• A scaffold prompt: scaffolds the learning for children who need more
support than a simple reminder.
‘Can you describe how this person is a ‘good friend’?’
‘Describe something that happened that showed they are a good friend.’
• An example prompt: can be extremely successful with all children, but
especially with average or below average children.
‘Choose one of these or your own: “He is a good friend because he never
says unkind things about me”, “My friend is a friend because he never tells
me lies.’”
- Shirley Clarke
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Reminder Prompt
Learning Intention: To be able to isolate variables in a controlled test.
- ‘The nail rusted much more in dish 2.’
Emma, what were the
isolated variables that
caused the rusting?
‘The isolated variables were water and air – these must have been
the causes of the rusting.’
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Scaffold Prompt
Learning Intention: To use dialogue to give the reader an impression of
- ‘Emil smiled and whipered, “Put it in your pocit.”’
Complete this with a powerful
Emil smiled …………..
‘Emil smiled slyly’
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Example Prompt
Learning Intention: To identify patterns of volcanic activity
- ‘There is a chane of voclanos in the meditranan sea they from a line.’
Name one example:
One of these volcanoes is
named …………..
‘Sir I like Etna best.’
‘One of these volcanoes is named Etna it is near a citiy
caled Naples.’
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Activity 2
Prompts for Improvement
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Final Tips and Reminders
To deliver formative feedback:
• Relate the feedback to the learning intention and success criteria;
• Identify where success has occurred;
• Set a goal for improvement;
• Show where and how improvement could take place;
• Allow time for pupils to make improvements; and
• Start small
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