Chapter One: Principles of Government

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Transcript Chapter One: Principles of Government

Chapter One: Principles of
Government
Section 1: Government and State
1. Government
a. Institution that society makes and enforces public
policies
b. Legislative, judicial, executive powers
2. Characteristics of State
a. Population
b. Territory- land with known and recognized
boundaries
c. Sovereignty- supreme power within its territory
d. Government- agency through which state exerts
will
Purposes of
Government
1.
2.
3.
4.
Form a more perfect union
Establish justice
Insure domestic tranquility
Provide for the common
defense
5. Promote the general
welfare
6. Secure the blessings of
liberty
Origins of the State
1. Force Theory:
Individual or group claimed a
territory and forced
population . State became
sovereign and those in control
formed a government
2. Evolutionary Theory:
Population formed from
Families, heads of families
Government. Families settled
in territory became sovereign
3. Divine Right Theory:
God created state (sovereign)
Government chose by God.
God chose to rule territory.
Population must obey ruler
4. Social Contract Theory:
Population in a given territory
gives power to government to
promote wellbeing of all, in
doing so create a sovereign
state
Section 2: Forms of Government
1. Democracy:
-
Political authority rests with
people
- Direct or Indirect
A . Presidential: powers separated by
branches
B. Parliamentary: executive branch of
legislature
C. Federal: power shared by local and
national government
D. Confederate: power centered in
local governments
E. Unitary: power centered in
national government
Section 2: Forms of Government
2. Dictatorship
-
Rulers not responsible to the
people
- Government not accountable for
policies or how they are carried
out
- Most totalitarian, militaristic
A. Autocracy: one person rules
B. Oligarchy: small group rules
Section 3: Concepts of Democracy
5 Basic Concepts of Democracy:
1. Individual Worth: recognition of fundamental
worth and dignity of every person
2. Equality: Respect for the equality of all persons
3. Majority Rule, Minority Rights: faith in majority
rule and an insistence upon minority rights
4. Compromise: acceptance of the necessity of
compromise
5. Individual Freedom: insistence upon the widest
possible degree of individual freedom