Muslim Caliphates

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Transcript Muslim Caliphates

Muslim Caliphates
The Umayyad and Abbasid
(Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas
Ummayah Dynasty
Abulahab Alhareth
Abbbassides Dynasty
Umayyad Caliphate 661 – 750
• Capital: Political center of Islam changed from
Mecca to Damascus
Mainly Arab city
• Focus: Principle concern was expansion of Islam
– Umayyad conquests brought material wealth to the caliphate
• Government: Mu’awiyah adopted Byzantine administrative practices
• Authoritarian
• Navy Founded
Bureaucracy isolated themselves from the general public
Saw themselves as “shadows of God on earth”
• Problems:
The Arab focus as emphasized by the Umayyad ruling elite caused dissension
The ruling elite equated Islam with Arab descent
Mawali (Non-Arab Muslims) were discriminated against
This ultimately contributed to the downfall of the caliphate and the rise of the
Pact of Umar: Rights of non-Muslims (dhimmi)
Abbasid Caliphate 750 - 1258
• Capital: moved to the new city of Baghdad
Population of 1 million in 9th Century
Became a center of trade and intellectual thought
Revived Greek classics
Arabic became the language of science and diplomacy
Religious tolerance flourished
Opposite of Europe
• Focus: Conquest was not stressed as it was in the Umayyad Caliphate
Came to power via shi’ite support but eventually changed to sunni
• The new stress was on development of administrative institutions, commercial
enterprise and a legal system
• Higher members of society were no longer warriors but now bureaucrats,
merchants, and judges
• Abandoned the Arab exclusivity
• Adopted a policy of Muslim equality
• The number of converts increased as conquered peoples now saw this as an
Abbasid Caliphate (cont’d)
• Government: First 150 years were marked by political stability
and prosperity (Abbasid Empire)
Placed political power in the hands of an absolute monarch
This worked until 945
At this time, regional dynasties with governors who reported to
Baghdad developed and took some of the power away from the
absolute rule of the Abbasid Caliphate
Examples: Delhi, Ghazna, Cairo, and Cordoba
• Problems:
• Power of empire was diminished
• 1258 – Abbasid Caliphate falls when Baghdad was sacked by the
Hugalu’s Mongol forces